setts Book of Proceed-
ings at the Celebration
of theTwo Hundred and Fiftieth
Anniversary of theTown's Incor-
poration I 646 - I 896^e^e^e^e^
^UDO ^\in}>u}> arib ^ifiki^ ^nrxiy^ttBax^
INCORPORATION OF THE TOWN
MAY 20, 1896
THE ANDOVER PRESS
^veCiminatr^ (§ct\on of ^§e ^oi»n
Action at Town Meeting, March, 1894,
First Annual Report of Committee of Fifteen,
Second Annual Report of Committee of Fifteen,
Third Annual Report of Committee of Fifteen,
Invited Guests, .......
Official Program, .......
Sunday at the Churches,
Historical Tableaux, ....
^itetav^ <S!\^c\BtB at t^^ C^wcc^
Oration, by Albert Poor, Esq.,
Poem, by Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs,
READ BY Prof. John W. Churchill,
Address of the President, Prof. J. W. Churchill,
Address of Acting Governor Roger Wolcott,
Address of Hon. William S. Knox,
Sentiment from Hon. George O. Shattuck,
Telegram from Rev. Dr. William Jewett Tucker
Address of Hollis R. Bailey, Esq.,
Address of Capt. Francis H. Appleton,
Address of Hon. Moses T. Stevens,
Address of Capt. John G. B. Adams,
Address of Albert Poor, Esq.,
Sentiment from Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs,
Address of Prof. John Phelps Taylor,
^oan CoUtciion (xnb J^xetot'xc ^xk&
Report of Committee, .......
Portraits and Pictures of Andover Men and Women,
Andover Theological Seminary,
Punchard Free School, .
Memorial Hall Library,
List of Contributors,
List of Houses and Sites,
Pre-Historic Sites, .
List of Historic Sites in the North Parish,
Manufactures and Trades Exhibit,
/ , %
In March, 1894, the citizens of Andover, assembled in
annual town meeting, took the first steps in preparation for
the proper celebration of the town's Two Hundred and
Fiftieth Anniversary, by action upon the following article:
" To see what action the town will take in regard to
the proper observance of the town's Two Hundred and
A vote was passed that a committee of fifteen be ap-
pointed to formulate a plan and report at the next annual
town meeting, and the moderator appointed the following
gentlemen as members of that committee:
C. F. P. Bancroft, George Gould,
Joseph M. Bradley, Ballard Holt,
Samuel H. Boutwell, William Marland,
John N. Cole, George H. Poor,
William C Donald, Alfred L. Ripley,
George W, Foster, Joseph W. Smith,
Frederick W. Greene, John Phelps Taylor,
Howell F. Wilson.
The work of this committee is told in the following de-
tailed reports of the chairman made at the annual town meet-
ings of the years 1895, 1896, and 1897.
These reports follow at this time that the official record
of the preparations for, and observance of, the events of the
day may all be found together in this " Book of Proceedings."
14 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
At the annual town meeting in 1895, the committee made
its first annual report showing progress as follows:
FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE
The Committee of Fifteen appointed by the town at the last
annual meeting to formulate a plan for the proper observance of the
250th anniversary of the incorporation of Andover beg leave to report
as follows : —
The members of the committee as appointed are :
C. F. P. Bancroft, George Gould,
Joseph M. Bradley, Ballard Holt,
Samuel H. Boutwell, William Marland,
John N. Cole, George H. Poor,
William C. Donald, Alfred L. Ripley,
George W. Foster, Joseph W. Smith,
Frederick W. Greene, John Phelps Taylor,
Howell F. Wilson.
The first meeting of the committee was held for the purpose
of organization, at the School Committee Room, March 17, 1894.
C. F. P Bancroft was chosen chairman, and John N. Cole, secretary.
The general purpose of the committee and the main features of the
proposed celebration were considered and further action postponed to
a subsequent meeting.
A second meeting was held February 13, 1895, and a third on
February 21, 1895, and it was voted to report to the town the follow-
ing recommendations :
1. That the celebration be held on Wednesday, the 6th of May,
1896, this day being the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the
incorporation of the town by the General Court.
2. That the town of Andover invite the town of North Andover,
and the citizens thereof, to participate in such way as may be con-
venient and agreeable to them in the celebration of the incorporation
of the original township in which they have a common pride and in-
3. That on the Sunday preceding the 6th of May, 1896, the
250TH ANNIVERSARY 1$
ministers in the several churches in Andover and North Andover be
invited and requested to preach memorial sermons to their respective
4. That Albert Poor, Esq., a lineal descendant of one of the
original proprietors, and a native citizen of this ancient township be
invited to deliver a commemorative historical address.
5. That Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs be invited to prepare a
poem for the occasion, and that Professor John Wesley Churchill be
invited to read the same.
6. That all further details, including whatever is desirable in a
civic celebration of this character and suitable to this community and
to our history, such as the ringing of bells, the firing of cannon, the
decoration of public and private buildings, vocal and martial music,
athletic games, children's festivals, processions, invitations and hospi-
tality, transportation, finance, historical and antiquarian collections,
printing and publication, and any and all other things proper and
necessary for the worthy celebration of the quarter-millenial history of
this town be entrusted to the committee, appointed by the town for
the purpose, to report at the next annual meeting, or at such other
time as may be found convenient to the committee.
7. That the town authorize the committee to appoint sub-com-
mittees and fill vacancies.
For the Committee,
Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman.
Andover, Mass., March 4, 1895.
The report was accepted and adopted, and the arrange-
ments for all details of the celebration u^ere thus continued in
the care of the original committee.
In March, 1896, the committee again reported and pre-
sented a complete outline of the day's observance.
SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE
At the Annual Meeting of 1895 your Committee of Fifteen on
the 250 th Anniversary of the Incorporation of Andover, appointed at
the Annual Meeting of 1894, reported progress, and presented certain
l6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
recommendations and appointments, and a general outline of a civic
celebration of the 250th Anniversary of the Town. That report was
accepted, and its recommendations were adopted. This report, and
the action thereon, may be found on pages 15, 16, and 17 of the
Annual Reports of the Town Officers for the year ending January 15,
During the year your Committee held meetings October 26, Novem-
ber 13, December 11, December 20, February 3, February 21 ; many
meetings have been held by the sub-committees.
There have been two changes in the Committee : Frederick W.
Greene, having resigned his charge in the West Parish and removed
to Middletown, Ct., his place was filled, in accordance with the author-
ity of the vote of the Town, by the appointment of Peter D. Smith ;
George Gould, having removed temporarily from the town, asked to
be released from further service on the Committee, and his place was
filled by the appointment of Arthur Bliss.
The Committee deemed it wise to change the date of the celebra-
tion from May 6 to May 20, and accordingly to ask the pastors of the
churches to preach the memorial sermons on May 17 instead of May
The Committee, as authorized by the Town, has created sub-
committees as follows :
Invitation and Guests — C. F. P. Bancroft, chairman.
Evening Reception and Historical Tableaux — A. L. Ripley,
Decorations — George W. Foster, chairman.
Music — Arthur Bliss, chairman.
Salute and Fireworks — John L. Smith, chairman.
Procession — Peter D. Smith, chairman.
Printing — John N. Cole, chairman.
Banquet — William Marland, chairman.
Loan Collection and Historic Sites — Samuel H. Boutwell, chair-
Transportation — Howell F. Wilson, chairman.
Sports — Joseph M. Bradley, chairman.
Children's Festival — Joseph W. Smith, chairman.
They have constituted themselves the Finance Committee, with
George H. Poor as chairman, to which as General Committee also,
3SOTH ANNIVERSARY 1 7
each sub-committee is to report. Each sub-committee has for its
chairman or in its membership a member of the General Committee,
so that a general unity of plan and effort may be readily secured.
About one hundred and seventeen men and women were invited to
serve the town on these sub-committees, of whom only two have
requested to be excused.
In addition to the appointment of Orator and Poet, as voted at
the last town meeting, the Committee of Fifteen have appointed Rev.
Frank R. Shipman, pastor of our oldest church, chaplain of the day,
Peter D. Smith, chief marshal, and John Wesley Churchill, toast-
The provisional program adopted by your Committee includes
the following as possible features :
For the evening of May 19, a general reception with
music and tableaux illustrating distinctive events and scenes
in the town's history.
For the morning of May 20, sunrise bells and artillery
A procession, in which the schools may have a promi-
nent place, and the various organizations of the town.
The literary exercises.
The dinner, followed by addresses from distinguished
guests and others.
Various entertainment for the children.
Field sports and athletic games.
A loan collection in some suitable place, with objects
of special historical, industrial and personal interest.
There has been a very general interest in the matter
of decorations, and the Committee expect such general and
hearty response from families and firms, especially from the
children, as will make a May festival of great beauty.
For the evening of May 20, the Committee has con-
sidered the possibility of an out-of-door concert, with a dis-
play of fireworks, and possibly one or more in-door prom-
enade concerts at the same time.
Your Committee has been guided by a few broad principles. We
cannot vie with the larger and richer communities in numbers and
display. We have not the means of housing and entertaining a great
throng of spectators, who have little interest in our celebration. We
must therefore study to make it dignified and worthy, rather than
1 8 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
elaborate and costly. We have no one auditorium in which we can
gather a very large assembly. The committee has sought to provide
a variety of exercises, some of which may properly be in progress at
the same time, and which at all events will appeal to a variety of
differing interests, thereby relieving the poverty of our accommo-
Your Committee did not accept your appointment in 1894, and
its renewal in 1895, as a right of inheritance, or a mark of distinction,
or a coveted privilege, but they accepted it as servants of the town to
promote a celebration historic, comprehensive, and patriotic. They
record here their appreciation of the support they have received thus
far from old citizens and new comers, from women as well as men,
from youth and adults, from all parts of our scattered territory, and
from former residents and their descendants as well as from our pres-
ent inhabitants. It has been the desire of your Committee to enlist
everybody in this celebration, till everybody within our borders feels
that it is unselfishly his. They have taken it for granted that every
man, woman and child should regard himself as a member of the great
central " committee of the whole," and should charge himself with a
responsibility for this celebration, which was begun by the vote and in
the name of the town as a whole, of the town as it is to-day, with all the
various components that are in it, and which is to be carried on with
the distinct aim of paying a worthy tribute of gratitude and reverence
to the past, with a conscious civic self-respect and appreciation of the
present, and with a generous reference to the future of a township
already favorably known for its noble public spirit.
Your Committee therefore have felt it their duty to call upon
every citizen, in the name of the town, to assist in this celebration ;
and they have called upon a few, out of the very many who are compe-
tent for such leadership, by name and by appointment, to represent
and organize and direct the activity of our great " committee of the
whole," to which every one of our more than six thousand citizens
Finally, in order to meet the expenses of the celebration, your
Committee recommends that the town avail itself of the provisions of
the general statute relating to centennial celebrations by towns and
cities in this Commonwealth. Under this statute a town may appro-
priate a sum not exceeding one-tenth of one per cent, of its taxable
25OTH ANNIVERSARY I9
valuation. As your Committee is informed by the Selectmen, our
valuation is about ;g4, 500,000, and a tenth of one per cent, would
give an appropriation of $4,500 for our Quarter-Millenial, a sum
which judiciously expended would meet the requirements of a dignified
and comprehensive celebration, while not large enough to warrant
Your Committee accordingly recommends an appropriation not
exceeding one-tenth of one per cent, of the taxable valuation, to be
expended under the direction of the Finance Committee.
Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman.
The next report of the committee was presented in March,
1897, and was as follows:
THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE
At the annual Town Meeting of 1896, your Committee of Fifteen
on the 250 th Anniversary of the Incorporation of Andover, which
committee was appointed at the Annual Meeting in 1894, made its
second annual report, which report was accepted and adopted by a
gratifying unanimous vote. This report is printed in the annual
report of the Selectmen for the year ending January 12, 1897, and
may be found on pages 17-20.
Your Committee respectfully report further at this time that
they held meetings during this year as follows: March 9, 18, April
10, 15, 29, May 13, 16, 28, 1896, and February 27, 1897. The sub-
committees also held numerous meetings in the discharge of their
In addition to the sub-committees previously reported, your com-
mittee appointed a Committee on Manufactures and Trades Exhibit,
Howell F. Wilson, chairman, thereby adding to the celebration one of
the most interesting and instructive features.
The general reception prepared for May 19 was reluctantly given
up, partly in order to give an opportunity to the committee on His-
torical Tableaux to repeat the entertainment which had been presented
on Saturday evening for the children, and on Monday for the adults.
At this third presentation many of the guests from out of town were
20 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
present. So great was the interest that a fourth performance was
arranged and successfully carried out immediately after the third
exhibition, Tuesday evening. It is estimated that twenty-eight hun-
dred people had the pleasure of seeing these beautiful historical tab-
The endeavor of the committee to provide simultaneous exercises
appealing to different tastes and interests, and to open the Loan
Collection and Trades exhibit at convenient hours for several days
instead of a single day, proved to be satisfactory.
The clergymen of the various churches kindly responded to the
invitation of the town to preach appropriate sermons, or to make
suitable allusion to the approaching anniversary, on Sunday, May 1 7.
The invitation of the Town to the town of North Andover to
unite with us in the celebration was not officially accepted, but a vol-
untary committee was made up in North Andover to co-operate with
our own committee, and very efficient assistance was rendered, partic-
ularly in the loan collection. Many citizens of North Andover, some
of them specially invited guests of the town of Andover, contributed
by their presence to the distinction of the celebration.
The official program and other documents submitted herewith
and made a part of this report show the work that was done by the
various sub-committees, and the various exercises that were held,
beginning with Saturday, May 16, 1896, and closing with the band
concert and fireworks on the evening of Wednesday, May 20.
The citizens showed from the beginning to the end a patriotic
interest in the celebration and the committees experienced from
almost all of them a hearty co-operation. The attendance from abroad
and the responses to the special invitations extended by the committee
to distinguished representatives of the neighborhood, the county, the
state, the colleges and learned societies, and the nation, were very
cordial and gratifying.
The committee feel that it is their bounden duty to speak in the
highest terms of the manner in which the orator, poet, and toast-master
discharged the several duties which they undertook at the invitation
of the town, and which called out the most striking expressions of
admiration and praise.
The principal duty remaining for the committee is to carry for-
ward to completion, the book of the proceedings of the celebration, a
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 21
work already far advanced, but for which some additional time is re-
The town generously voted the sum of $4500 for the purposes of
the committee. The receipts and expenditures of the committee are
shown in detail in the Selectmen's report, and are here appended.
The balance on hand reported is $932.62, an amount which the
committee regard as ample for the publication of the proceedings
and the official payments of the expenses of the celebration. A
copy of the proceedings will be delivered free of cost, to the head
of every family in town on application, duly received by the secretary
of the committee, on or before May i.
Your committee recommend accordingly the following votes :
Voted that the thanks of the town of Andover be and hereby are
extended to the pastors of the churches in Andover and North Ando-
ver who observed the Anniversary Sunday, May 17, and to the
Andover Woman's Missionary Society, for the meeting held under
their auspices on the evening of that day ; to the orator, Albert Poor,
Esq., for his able historical oration ; to Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs,
for her beautiful poem ; to Professor John Wesley Churchill for his
admirable rendering of the poem and for his very acceptable service
as presiding officer and toast-master at the dinner ; to the Rev. F. R.
Shipman, chaplain of the day ; to the ladies and gentlemen of the
North Andover committee, for their hearty and helpful co-operation ;
to the ladies and gentlemen who acted with so much efficiency and
success as members of the sub-committees ; and to all who in any way
contributed, directly or indirectly, to the successful celebration of this
Voted that the Committee of Fifteen be continued the coming
year and instructed to make a final report at the annual town meeting
in March, 1898.
For the Committee,
Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman.
Professor Harris in moving the adoption of the report,
said: " In listening to the various votes of thanks, I noticed
that one most important one had been omitted, and that was a
22 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
vote of thanks to the general committee for their services. I
now would move you, sir, that we adopt this report with the
addition of a generous vote of thanks to the general com-
mittee." The report as amended was accepted.
The following statement shows the different expenses of the
Receipts from Banquet,
Receipts from Loan Collection,
$ 395 36
1 179 79
Salute and Fireworks,
Invitation and Guests,
Balance (publication fund), I932 62
The following ladies and gentlemen composed the committees in
charge of the different features of the celebration :
Committee of ^^iftcen
George H. Poor,
Peter D. Smith,
Alfred L. Ripley,
Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman.
Joseph M. Bradley, John Phelps Taylor,
William C. Donald, William Marlamd,
George W. Foster, Ballard Holt,
Samuel H. Boutwell, Joseph W. Smith,
H. F. Wilson,
John N. Cole, Secretary.
The Committee of Fifteen, with George H. Poor, Chairman.
3nmtatton anb ©ucsts
Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman.
Samuel H. Boutwell,
Francis H. Johnson,
George W. W. Dove,
William S. Jenkins,
Horace H. Tyer,
Wm. G. Goldsmith,
Joseph W. Smith,
George W. Foster,
E. P. Chapin,
T. a. Holt,
Joseph A. Smart,
George H. Poor,
James E. Dennison,
Egbert C. Smyth,
Warren F. Draper,
John N. Cole,
E. Kendall Jenkins,
William C. Donald,
John Phelps Taylor,
William M. Wood,
Wililam B. Graves,
C. H. Marland,
Felix G. Haynes,
John S. Stark,
Charles H. Frye,
Albert S. Manning,
24 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
(Eoentng JJeccption anb tableaux
Alfred L. Ripley, Chairman.
Miss Emily Means, Mrs. M. S. McCurdy, J. Newton Cole,
Miss Mary B. Mills, F. S. Boutwell, George A. Higgins,
Miss Alice Buck, John W. Bell.
George W. Foster, Chairman.
W. H. Coleman, Charles H. Shearer, John E. Smith,
George D. Millett, Miss Emma J. Lincoln, William P. Regan,
Miss Florence Parker, Edward W. Burtt.
T. Frank Pratt,
Arthur Bliss, Chairman.
Mrs. M. E. Gutterson, Joseph A. Smart,
Miss Ellen C. Snow, Charles H. Newton,
Chas. H. Gilbert.
Salute anb ^Jtrc IDorks
John L. Smith, Chairman.
Lewis T. Hardy, George W. Chandler,
Joseph F. Cole.
M. A. Clement,
J. Warren Berry,
Peter D. Smith, Chairman.
Frank E. Gleason, H. Bradford Lewis,
J. M. Bean, Moses L. Farnham,
James B. Smith, P. J. Hannon,
George S. Cole.
Joseph W. Smith, Chairman.
John Alden, Miss M. Donovan, Colver J. Stone
J. Newton Cole, Miss Frances Meldrum, T. Dennie Thomson,
Mrs. J. E. Johnson, Rev. F. A. Wilson.
Howell F. Wilson,
John N. Cole, Chairman.
Frank T. Carlton, Mrs. Annie S. Downs,
Joseph W. Smith.
Herbert F. Chase,
Joseph M. Bradley, Chairman.
J. W. Manning, Walter Buck,
Antoine B. Saunders, George D. Pettee,
Frank S. Mills.
John H. Flint,
Charles L. Carter,
William Marland, Chairman.
Brooks F. Holt, Charles H. Shattuck,
B. Frank Smith, J. Wesley Churchill.
M. C. Andrews,
James W. Hunt,
Samuel H. Boutwell, Chairman
William Marland, George F. Baker,
Charles C. Carpenter, Samuel J. Bailey,
Daughters of the Revolution.
Howell F. Wilson, Chairman.
Abraham Marland, J. W. Barnard,
William H. Higgins.
John H. Flint,
2Jtanufacturcs anb Crabes (Exljibit
Howell F. Wilson, Chairman.
George F. Smith, Emil Hoffman,
Sam D. Stevens.
The following were invited to the celebration:
The President of the United States, Hon. Grover Cleveland.
His Excellency, Roger Wolcott, Governor of the Commonwealth.
His Worship, Alderman Henry Harwood, Mayor of Andover, England.
Adjutant General Samuel Dalton,
Brigadier General Albert O. Davidson,
Col. William M. Bunting,
Col. William E. Barrett,
Col. Fred T. Walsh,
Hon. F. H. Appleton, Peabody.
Mrs. Moses Abbott, Andover.
Hon. Charles Francis Adams, Boston.
President E. B. Andrews, D. D.,
Providence, R. I.
Hon. J. C. Abbott, Lowell.
Hon. Edwin H. Abbot, Cambridge.
Capt. John G. B. Adams, Lynn.
Arthur Bliss, Andover.
Samuel H. Boutwell, Andover.
Edward B. Bishop, Haverhill.
Hollis R. Bailey, Boston.
Mrs. William F. Bartlett, Pittsfield.
Lieut. George T. Brown, Maiden.
Rev. Henry E. Barnes, D. D., North
William G. Brooks, North Andover.
*HoN. Benj. F. Brickett, Haverhill.
Henry M. Brooks, Salem.
Mrs. Esther H. Byers, New York,
John Crosby Brown, New York, N. Y.
*Miss Helen C. Bradlee, Boston.
Hon. Alexander B. Bruce, Lawrence.
Hon. R. R. Bishop, Newton Center.
Hon. W. G. Bassett, Northampton.
Rev. Dr. W. B. Brown, Newark, N. J.
Rev. J. J. Blair, Wallingford, Ct.
Rev. Leverett Bradley, Philadelphia,
■■ Of the Governor's Staff.
Clinton A. Clark, Methuen.
Daniel S. Chase, Haverhill.
President Franklin Carter, LL. D.,
Mrs. Helen G. Coburn, Boston.
Col. George H. Campbell, Lawrence.
President E. H. Capen, D. D., Tufts
Charles H. Clark, Haverhill.
Capt. John Clark, Cambridge.
Rev. G. W. Clough, Mechanicsville, Vt.
E. A. Carpenter, North Reading.
Aaron A. Currier, North Andover.
Prof. John Wesley Churchill, And-
General W. J. Dale, North Andover.
♦William J. Dale, Jr., North Andover.
President Timothy Dwight, D. D.,
New Haven, Ct.
Rev. Dr. E. Winchester Donald,
John Ward Dean, Medford.
Hon. James H. Derbyshire, Lawrence.
Patrick P. Daw, North Andover.
John M. Danforth, Lynnfield Center.
Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, Andover.
Hon. Ralph Emerson, Rockford, 111.
President Charles W. Eliot, LL. D.
Hon. William C. Endicott, Salem.
Rev. Samuel Hopkins Emery, D. D.,
Frank A. Fitzgerald, Tewksbury.
Rev. Dr.D. T. Fiske, Newburyport.
Hon. William P. Frye, Lewiston,
Miss Alice French, Davenport, Iowa.
F. C. Faulkner, Keene, N. H.
Theophilus C. Frye, Lawrence.
J. D. W. French, North Andover.
Hon. Newton P. Frye, North Andover.
Chief Justice W. A. Field, Boston.
F. H. Farmer, Tewksbury.
William E. Gowing, Wilmington.
Rev. F. W. Greene, Middletown, Ct.
Mrs. David Gray, Andover.
Dr. Samuel A. Green, Boston.
Abner C. Goodell, jr., Salem.
President M. E. Gates, LL. D.,
Joseph D. Gowing, North Reading.
George F. Heeland, Dracut.
Hon. William H. Hodgkins, Somer-
Walter H. Hayes, North Andover.
Lieut. S. C. Hervey, Boston.
Major Horace Holt, Salt Lake City,
Hon. Joseph Sidney Howe, Methuen.
Rev. E. B. Haskell, Worcester.
Mrs. Dean Holt, Andover.
Hon. Rowland Hazard, Peacedale,
Alpheus H. Hardy, Boston.
Dr. J. M. Harlow, Woburn.
Mrs. J. M. Harlow, Woburn.
Hon. George F. Hoar, Worcester.
William J. Halliday, Jr., North And-
Hon. Rollin E. Harmon, Lynn.
Hon. F. a. Hill, Boston.
President W. Dew. Hyde, Brunswick,
Mrs. Sarah F. F. Howarth, Andover.
Mrs. President Julia Irvine, Welles-
Hon. George S. Junkins, Lawrence.
Samuel A. Johnson, Salem.
Arthur S. Johnson, Boston.
Miss Sarah Kittredge, North And-
Hon. W. S. Knox, Lawrence.
Ballard Lovejoy, Andover.
Charles Lilley, Lowell.
Rev. Stephen C. Leonard, Orange,
The Right Rev. William Lawrence,
Rev. James H. Laird, Hinsdale.
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, Nahant.
Hon. George P. Lawrence, North
John O. Loring, North Andover.
Charles W. Lee, Reading.
George E. Marshall, Tewksbury.
Rev. Alexander Mckenzie, D. D.,
Mrs. President Elizabeth Storrs
Mead, South Hadley.
Edwin D. Mead, Boston.
Mortimer B. Mason, Boston.
Hon. G. V. L. Meyer, Boston.
Prof, Charles M. Mead, D. D., Hart-
Marcus Morton, Boston.
N. E. Morton, Lawrence.
Rev. F. B. Makepeace, Springfield.
Prof. George Mooar, D. D., Oakland,
Hon. Charles T. Means, Manchester,
Rev. M. J. Murphy, Lawrence.
W. F. Merrill, New York, N. Y.
George O. Marsh, Methuen.
Major George S. Merrill, Lawrence.
Miss Margaret Wendell Newman,
Rev. Charles No yes. North Andover.
E. M. Nichols, Wilmington.
Theodore M. Osborne, Salem.
Hon. William M. Olin, Boston.
Frederick Patch, Lawrence.
Rev. E. G. Porter, Ashmont.
Hon. Dean Peabody, Lynn.
Judge Charles A. Peabody, New
York, N. Y.
*Samuel Phillips, Andover.
William Poor, Andover.
Mrs. Clarissa Abbott Poor, Andover.
Albert Poor, Andover.
Lieut. Charles H. Poor, North An-
Rev. Dr. A. H. Quint, Boston.
Mrs. Esther Randall, Andover.
Robert Russell, Holyoke.
Rev. J. J. Ryan, Cambridge, N. Y.
A. Herbert Robinson, Lawrence.
Hon. John C. Ropes, Boston.
Hon. Joseph S. Ropes, Norwich, Ct.
Thomas H. Russell, Boston.
W. L Ruggles, Reading.
J. Milton Robinson, North Reading.
Alfred Sagar, Methuen.
Horace E. Scudder, Cambridge.
President W. G. Sperry, D. D., Olivet,
Mrs. Willard G. Sperry, Olivet,
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Worcester.
Hon. Oliver Stevens, Boston.
General Hazard Stevens, Boston.
John S. Stark, Ballardvale.
Rev. F. R. Shipman, Andover.
Samuel D. Smith, Marblehead.
Howard A. Stevens, Dracut.
Hon. Moses T. Stevens, North An-
Mrs. M. T. Stevens, North Andover.
President L. Cl.^rk Seelye, D. D.,
A. R. Sanborn, Lawrence.
Hon. E. J. Sherman, Lawrence.
Hon. William H. Strong, New York,
President George W. Smith, D. D.,
David Smith, U. S. N., Washington,
Commander E. T. Strong, U. S. N.,
Bryn Mawr, Pa.
Mrs. Charles Smith, New York, N. Y.
Rev. J. V. Stratton, Scottsdale, Pa.
♦Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hart-
Hon. George O. Shattuck, Boston.
Hon. Daniel Saunders, Lawrence.
Charles J. Sargent, Wilmington.
Mrs. Pa.melia Stevens, Andover.
Prof. J. H. Thayer, D. D., Cambridge.
Lucius Tuttle, Boston.
President William J. Tucker, D. D.,
Hanover, N. H.
Rev. E. S. Thomas, North Andover.
Dr. Nathaniel C. Towle, Andover.
Rev. Dr. James G. Vose, Providence,
William P. Varnum, Dracut.
Rev. Dr. J. W. Well.man, Maiden.
Rev. Dr. W. H. Willcox, Maiden.
Rev. Dr. G. L. Walker, Hartford, Ct
President Francis A. Walker, LL.
President Willia.m F. Warren, D.
Hon. John A. Wiley, North Andover.
Rev. W1LLIA.M G. Woodbridge, Griffin,
Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Washington,
Hon. Alden P. White, Salem.
Rev. E. S. Williams, Oakland, Cal.
Rev. Dr. George Frederick Wright,
Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps
Ward, Newton Center.
William Whitman, Brookline.
William H. Wightman, Reading.
Simon Wardwell, Andover.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 29
THE OFFICIAL PROGRAM
SATURDAY, MAY i6
7.30 p. M., At Town Hall : Historical Tableaux, Children's
SUNDAY, MAY 17
10.30 A. M., At the Churches l\ Andover and North An-
DOVER : Historical Sermons. 7.30 p. m., At South Church : Union
Missionary Service under the auspices of the Andover Woman's
MONDAY, MAY 18
8.00 p. M., At Town Hall : Historical Tableaux, free admission
TUESDAY, MAY 19
8.00 p. M., At Town Hall : Historical Tableaux, free admission
WEDNESDAY, MAY 20
Sunrise and Sunset : Salute and Bells. Procession, 9 a. m.
LITERARY EXERCISES IN THE SOUTH CHURCH. 11 a.m.
Presiding Officer, Dr. C. F. P. Bancroft.
Music, \\'altham Band.
Prayer by Rev. F. R. Shipman, Chaplain.
Singing, " O God beneath thy guiding hand," Band accompaniment.
Oration by Albert Poor, Esq.
Music, Waltham Band.
Poem by Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, read by Prof. John Wesley Churchill.
Singing, " My Country 'tis of thee," band accompaniment.
1 1 A.M. At the Town Hall. For children only.
1.30 P.M. In tent on Bartlet Street : Presiding Officer, Prof. Churchill.
Speaking by distinguished guests. Music by Baldwin's Cadet Band.
30 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
1 P.M. Cricket Field, Andover Brass Band.
2 P.M. Phillips Academy Field, Haverhill City Band.
3 P.M. Elm Square, Waltham Watch Co- Band.
8 P.M. Locke's Field, Andover Brass Band.
8 P.M. At Locke's Field, Elm Street.
8.00 — Bicycle road race. For riders sixteen years and younger. An-
dover to Ballard Vale and return. Start and fmish at foot of Chestnut Street.
8. GO — Bicycle road race. For riders above sixteen years of age. Twice
over the course.
1 1 .00 — Tennis tournament. Mixed doubles. Matches played on the
Theological Seminary courts.
1 1. CO — Base-ball game for players over sixteen on the Phillips Academy
1. 00 — Cricket match between picked elevens from the Andover team,
on the Cricket Club grounds.
2. GO — Athletic sports, on the Phillips Field, consisting of the following
22G-yards hurdle race. (2 1-2 ft.)
Potato race. (50 yds.)
Bicycle — Serpentine race.
Bicycle — Egg and spoon race.
Running broad jump.
Music by Haverhill City Band.
3.30 — Base-ball game. For boys sixteen years and under, on the field
at the corner of Main and Salem Streets.
LOAN EXHIBITION IN PUNCHARD HALL
Tuesday, May 19, open 2 to 6 p.m.
Wednesday, May 20, open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Thursday, May 21, open 2 to 6 p.m.
TRADES EXHIBIT IN LOWER TOWN HALL
Tuesday, May 19, open 6 to ig p.m.
Wednesday, May 20, open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.
250TH ANNIVERSARY JI
Saturday, May 16, was the opening day for the celebra-
tion. For a week before that day, by decorations on public
buildings and through private and public preparations, the
town had been taking on its gala attire in anticipation of its
natal day. The sabbath day services of the morrow were de-
signed to open the anniversary exercises, but so great had
been the call for an opportunity to see the historical tableaux,
that an evening for the children was provided on Saturday.
For five days then the town lived in its festivities, and the
enjoyment of those days will live for many years in the minds
of those who participated.
SUNDAY AT THE CHURCHES
The services in the churches on Sunday, May 17, were of
peculiar interest and value. The various meeting houses were
filled with large congregations and many different aspects of
the town's life and growth were considered by the preachers.
The services were conducted as follows:
Founded in 1711.
Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Frank R. Shipman.
Text : "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before
God." Rev. 20 : 12.
Subject — "A Vision of Our Past."
32 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
WEST PARISH CHURCH
Founded in 1826.
Sermon by Rev. Wm. C. Merrill.
Text : "For the Lord' s portion is his people ; Jacob is the lot
of his inheritance. He found him in a desert land, and in the
waste howling wilderness ; he led him about, he instructed
hitn, lie kept Jiiin as the apple of his eye. As an eagle stirreth
up her nest, fluttcreth over her yoiuig, spreadeth abroad her
wings, take til them, beareth them, on her wings: so the Lord
alone did lead him, and there was no strange god with hitn."
Deut. 32 :9-i3."
Subject — " Unto This Time."
Founded in 1835.
Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Frederic Palmer.
Text: "And he carried me away in the spirit to a great
and high inotmtain, and shewed me that great city, the holy
Jerusalem, descending out of heaven fvm God." Rev. 21 : lo.
Subject — "Characteristics of the Ideal Commu-
nity Represented in Andover."
FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Founded in 1846.
Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Frederic A. Wilson.
Text : "/ have considered the days of old, the years of
ancient times." Psalms 77 : 5.
Subject — " Early Church Life in Massachusetts."
ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH
Founded in 1852.
Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Thomas A. Field, O. S. A.
Text : "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers ;
for there is no power but of God, and those that are ordained of
God. Romans 13:1, 2.
Subject — " Duty of the Present Day Citizen "
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 33
Founded in 1858.
Sermon by the pastor, Rev. F. W. Klein.
Text : "A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid." Matt.
Subject — " Andover's True Prominence."
Founded in 1865.
Sermon by Prof. John Phelps Taylor.
Text : "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand
forget her ciitming. If I do not remember thee let m.y tongue
cleave to the roof of my mouth ; If I ptefer not Jerusalem
above my chief joy." Psalm 137 : 5, 6.
Subject — " The Spirit of Educational Andover."
BALLARDVALE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
Founded in 1854.
Sermon by Rev. J. C. Evans.
Subject — " The Developments in the Ecclesiasti-
cal AND Moral History of Andover."
FIRST CHURCH, NORTH ANDOVER
Founded in 1645.
Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Charles Noyes.
Text : "Enquire I pray thee, of the former age and pre-
pare thyself to the search of their fathers." Job i6 : 8.
TRINITARIAN CHURCH, NORTH ANDOVER
Founded in 1834.
Sermon by the pastor. Rev. H. E. Barnes, D.D.
Text : "One generation shall praise thy works to another
and shall declare thy mighty acts." Psalms 145 :4.
Subject — "A Glance at North Andover's Two
Hundred and Fifty Years of History."
34 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
No better review of this beautiful and artistic feature of
the celebration could be made for a record than to reproduce
in fac simile the program which so appropriately announced it,
as shown in the following pages.
moral and Pleasing Pictures
FROM YE HISTORIE OF
y« ^ncienl Towne of Jlndover
Within Ye Massachusetts Bay Colony
From Y« Yeare of Our Lord
1646 to 1789 ....
To be shewn in Y« Towne House
On ye 16''', ye i8''>, and y* 19* Nights of ye Month of May,
In ye Yeare of Our Lord 1896
At eight of ye clock on ye i8th and ye igth nights,
and at half after seven of ye clock ye i6th
night, for ye welfare of ye children
a50TH ANNIVERSARY 35
1 y« P?^55in$ of y« Red i^en
"At a General Court at Boston, 6th ^d mo. 1646, Cutshamache, Saga-
more of Y* Massachusetts came into Y« Corte & acknowledged y' for the
sum of ^6 and a Coat which he had already received, he had sold to Mr.
John Woodbridge in behalfe of y^ inhabitants of Cochichawicke now called
Andover all his right interest & privilege in y* land 6 miles southward from
y« town, two miles eastward to Rowley bounds be y« same more or lesse,
northward to Merrimack River."
" To raising Townes and Churches new in wilderness they wander
First Plymouth and then Salem next were placed far asunder,
Woburn, Wenham, Redding, built with little Silver Mettle
Andover, Haverhill, Berris-banks their habitation settle."
"To the Honoured Councill. The malitiah of our towne do humbly
request your Honours to consider our condition. The enemy has twice
assaulted us ; the last was Saturday last, who slew a lusty younge mane &
took his brother a youth & carried him away : we had sum flforces to helpe
us bute the enemy cannot be found when we goe after them."
"In 1756 twenty-two Acadians were sent to Andover, and the families
of Jacques and Charles Esbert were placed in a house on the estate of Mr.
Jonathan Abbott, to his great annoyance. But as his descendants relate,
the Acadians completely conquered the prejudices of this family and of the
community. They were industrious and frugal, and commended their religion
by their good conduct. When they went from Andover, Mr. Abbott's family
parted from them with sincere regret. Two of them sent a souvenir to Mr.
Abbott, which the family still keep, a beautifully carved and polished powder
horn, made by their own hands. It is inscribed
" JONATHAN ABBOTT
HIS HORN MADB IN ALBNSTOWN APRIL YB 5 tJJO
I powder with my brother ball
Most hero-like doth conquer all."
36 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
5 J- VitcKcr^^fl
" Touching and sad a tale is told,
Like a penitent hymn of the Psalmist old,
Of the fast which the good man life-long kept
With a haunting sorrow that never slept.
As the circling year brought round the time
Of an error that left the sting of crime,
When he sat on the bench of the Witchcraft Courts
With the Laws of Moses and Hale's Reports,
And spake, in the name of both, the word,
That gave the witch's neck to the cord,
And piled the oaken planks that pressed
The feeble life from the warlock's breast."
y« Spififiii^? s^^
The town of Andover made an appeal, in 1787, "to the good sense and
virtuous dispositions of the female sex, to the younger as well as the elder,
that they would by their engaging example, economy, and simplicity in dress,
giving preference to that clothing which is produced from our own flocks
and from our own fields, encourage home industries.
At one time, the towns were obliged by law to have a certain amount of
7 y« I^eceplion of Gen. V^5Kin^Ion Ij P[i.d-b.ui
PKiIIIp5 kI y« M^^n5ioii Hou5e
This was the largest and most elegant house which had ever been built
in the town. Its raising (in 1781) was an occasion of universal interest.
The whole town were gathered together on the hill, watching with mingled
anxiety and delight as section after section of the heavy frame was raised.
The Rev. Mr. French made a fervent prayer for its successful accomplish-
ment, and when all was finished without accident, thanks and festivity
followed. Judge Phillips kept open house, and entertained guests of high
and of low degree with dignified courtesy and generous hospitality. Many
were the illustrious visitors at the Mansion House. Here, in the southeast
parlor, George Washington was received by Madame Phillips and her friends,
during the Presidential tour. The chair in which he sat was adorned by
Madame Phillips with a ribbon ; this, on the day when she heard the news of
his death, she took off and put in its stead a mourning badge of crape."
250TH ANNIVERSARY 37
Andover in all her glory, under fair skies and in a
bright array of flags and bunting, was all prepared for this
eventful day in her history. All roads led to Andover on this
fair May morning, and the gaily bedecked streets were early
full of life. At the stroke of the clock that tolled off the hour
of nine a. m. the day's pleasure had begun, and one event after
another in order and precision told how well the preliminary
arrangements had been made. Something for everybody to
enjoy, and some event to make the day memorable to each
attendant had been provided, and from the morning salute to
the boom of the good night rocket, not an accident occurred,
nor a detail of the program miscarried, in the making of
Andover's two hundred and fiftieth birthday a glorious success.
The procession formed as announced in the official pro-
gram and was made up as follows:
Platoon of Police. Chief, George W. Mears.
Baldwin's Cadet Band, 25 men. J. Thomas Baldwin, Leader.
Post 99, G. A. R., 40 men. Commander, J. M. Bean.
CHIEF MARSHAL, PETER D. SMITH.
Aids : C. L. Carter, M. C. Andrews, F. M. Hill, F. E. Gleason,
Herbert Goff, H. H. Noyes, Emanuel Downing.
Guests in Carriages.
38 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
^irst Otptston — (£oIor ^eb
James B. Smith, Marshal.
Aids : C. H. Forbes, A. A. Freeman, Peter Smith, W. J. Butter-
field, Clarence Goldsmith, J. Lewis Smith, Ralph A. Trow.
Andover Brass Band, 25 men. C. H. Newton, Leader.
Punchard Cadets, 30 boys. Henry Bodwell, Captain. Phillips
Academy Seniors, in caps and gowns. 900 School Children.
Seconb Otptsion — Color VOi}iU
H. Bradford Lewis, Marshal.
Aids: E. A. Hanson, W. A. Donald, M. J-. Crowley, W. J.
Burns, R. A. Watson, C. B. Jenkins, J. F. Cole, John
Haverhill City Band, 25 men. T. D. Perkins, Leader.
Fire Department. Chief, Lewis T. Hardy. Steamer Com-
pany, No. I, 20 men. Foreman, G. A. Holt. Hose
Wagon. Two Steamers. H. and L. Truck. J. P. Bradlee
Co., No. 2, 10 men. Allan Simpson, Foreman.
Ct^irb 2)tDtsion — (£olor 3Iue
M. A. Clement, Marshal.
Aids : F. P. Higgins, Dennis Sweeney, J. H. Campion, Stephen
Abbott, John Collins, Geo. L. Burnham, George E. Holt,
E. C. Pike, Augustus Nolan, W. B. Cheever, Harry
Holmes, N. G. Gleason, M. E. demons, F. H. Foster.
Waltham Watch Co. Band, 25 men. J. M. Flockton, Leader.
Grocers : T. A. Holt & Co., six teams ; Smith & Manning, five
teams ; J. H. Campion, five teams ; P. J. Daly, three teams.
Provision Dealers : Valpey Bros., four teams ; J. P. Wakefield,
three teams ; L. H. Eames; W. G. Brown.
Fish Dealers : T. J. Farmer, three teams ; J. Hutcheson,
Milk Dealers : Mrs. W. T. Sellers, two teams ; M. H. Gould,
George L. Averill.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 39
Andover Grange : decorated barge and barouche, containing
Maverick Oil Company : three-horse truck, and decorated
float representing " Washington crossing the Delaware."
Ballardvale Lithia Water Company : two wagons, with
display of product.
Wood and Coal : Frank E. Gleason, five teams.
Builders : Hardy & Cole, three teams.
Express: American, two teams ; B. B. Tuttle, two teams.
Tailors : P. J. Hannon, Burns & Crowley.
Plumbers : Michael T. Walsh, George Saunders, William
Welsh, E. C. Pike.
Florists : Mrs. Hannah Woodbridge, Geo. Piddington, J. H.
Smith & Dove Manufacturing Co. : wagon load of product.
Concrete : J. Duffy.
Wagons : J. W. Poor.
Boots and Shoes : B. Brown.
Tea : Joseph W. Higgins.
Stable Keeper : W. H. Higgins, fancy brake.
Carriages : William Poor.
Shoe Manufacturer : J. W. Barnard & Son, decorated shoe.
Blacksmith : Anderson & Bowman.
The route of march was as follows : High Street, through
Walnut and Maple Avenues, Summer to Whittier, East Chestnut,
Central, Phillips, Abbott, School and Main Streets to Elm Square.
The line was reviewed by the Marshal and Staff at Punchard
At II a. m. the South Church was filled with a large
audience of citizens and invited guests, who listened with
interest and close attention to the notable exercises provided.
Rev. Cecil F. P. Bancroft, LL.D., presided and introduced the
Rev. Frank R, Shipman, Chaplain
"O God Beneath Thy Guiding Hand"
Albert Poor, Esq.
- Annie Sawyer Downs
Band and Audience
While the older citizens and guests were assembled at
the Church, at the Town Hall an exhibition had been pro-
vided for the children only, and here they were delightfully
entertained by the following program:
1 Wonderful Feats of Prestidigitation.
2 a Xylophone Solo, " Klappermeier Galop." Ringkben
(The Xylophone used was made by Miss Miles.)
b Cornet Solo, " Polka Fantasie Fancies." Perkins
c Violin Solo, "Theme and Varie." Farmer
Including a host of imitations of sounds from the realm of Fish, Flesh
and Fowl, as well as many curious counterfeits of mechanical operations.
4 Cornet and Piano Duet,
Playing both instruments at the same time.
Swiss Staff Bells Solo, " Silver Bells Gavotte." Miles
Arranged and performed by Miss Miles.
250th anniversary 4i
5 Marvellous Feats of Legerdemain.
6 a Army Bugle Call, "Reveille," "Tattoo."
b Snare Drum Solo, " Long Roll " and " Quickstep."
(Arranged and performed by Miss Miles in uniform.)
7 Ventriloquial, introducing "A Family Party."
Patrick, not a Johnson.
The Mayor, fond of a nap.
Tom, V Little Johnsons.
The different sporting events planned by the committee
began in the morning with bicycle races and ended with
athletic sports on the Phillips Academy athletic field in the
afternoon. The winners of the different events were:
The race for riders sixteen years and younger was won by Walter
Lamont with Alex. Dundas second.
For riders over sixteen, A. H. Manning first, J. W. Manning second,
Charles Bodwell third.
At I o'clock a cricket match was played on the cricket grounds between
two teams captained by A. B. Saunders and D. F. Bruce. The former won,
44 to 24.
TRACK AND FIELD EVENTS
100 yards dash — Ralph Trow, n 2-5 s. 220 yards dash — J. Breslin, 26
2-5 s. 220 yards hurdle — J. Breslin, 31 1-5 s. Half mile race — H. Callum,
2 m. 30 2-5 s. Broad jump — T. Mahoney, 16 ft. 2 in. Potato race — Dickson.
Bicycle, egg and spoon race — A. Dundas. Bicycle serpentine race — Joseph
W. Smith, Jr.
42 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
During the day four band concerts were given in different
parts of the town as follows:
1 p, M. Cricket Field, Andover Brass Band.
2 P. M. Phillips Academy Field, Haverhill City Band.
3 p. M. Elm Square, Waltham Watch Co. Band.
8 p. M. Locke's Field. Andover Brass Band.
At 1.30 p. M. about seven hundred citizens were gathered
in the tent provided on Bartlet street for the banquet. Tickets
had been placed at $1.50 each and the committee in charge
had made ample accommodations for the comfort and enjoy-
ment of the guests. Professor Churchill presided and music
was furnished by Baldwin's Cadet Band. A full report of the
literary exercises at the banquet, follows the Oration and Poem.
But one set feature of the day's program remained and
the same careful planning that had marked all of the committee's
work made the fireworks exhibit a fitting close of a memorable
But not alone in the enjoyment of the stirring events of
the principal day of the celebration is the Quarter Millenial
Anniversary of Andover's birth to live in the memory of her
citizens; hours had been spent by old and young all through
the week in visiting the remarkable Loan Exhibition of
Historic Articles in Punchard Hall and the equally interesting
display of the present day Manufactures in the lower town hall.
On the following pages will be found the most interesting
part of this report. The oration and poem, the speeches of
many noted citizens at the banquet, the list of historical articles
that so delighted thousands of visitors, a brief review of the
exhibition in the town's industrial display, all together make a
part of this volume that every citizen will prize.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 43
BY ALBERT POOR, ESQ.
MR. PRESIDENT AND FELLOW CITIZENS .
The Reformation in England in the sixteenth century was
greatly furthered by the vices and ambitions of Henry VIII. In the
early years of his reign, this monarch held his conscience in the keep-
ing of the church, and the book that the royal hand compiled, in
which the cause of Leo X. was sustained against the theses of Luther,
won for its author and all his successors on the English throne, the
title of Defender of the Faith. But, when later the popes either
refused to aid him in his ambitious designs upon the continent, or
were too slowly inclined to facilitate that rapid rotation of wives this
uxorious monarch demanded, the royal lust and ambition, becoming
impatient of restraint, cast aside the supremacy of the pope, and the
king, scarce better or other than an anti-pope, assumed the headship
of the spiritual affairs of his kingdom. Devoid of moral significance
as this act of Henry's may have been, it no doubt at once opened
England to the reception of those reform doctrines that Luther was
inculcating, and with which the atmosphere of European thought was
densely charged. From this beginning the Reformation grew apace,
and before the end of the reign of Edward VI., son and successor of
Henry, the Church of England had been established, with its services
and rituals, in the same form substantially as they exist today. The
five years of Mary, who succeeded her brother Edward in 1553, were
indeed a time of sore torment and distress to the growing cause of
reform ; the fires of Smithfield, lighted by her, desolated many a home
in England, and her decrees, like the fabled laws of Draco, may be said
almost to have been written in blood. During her reign it is esti-
mated that almost three hundred victims perished at the stake. What
measure of Romanist zeal might not be expected of her who was at
once the wife of Philip II. and the granddaughter of Ferdinand and
Isabella ! What bitter vengefulness might not well inhere in the
spirit of the daughter of Catharine of Aragon !
44 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
With the accession of Elizabeth, however, the protestant church
was restored, and the acts of Parliament passed immediately upon her
accession to the throne, confirmed to her the sole leadership of the
Established Church. With the new sovereign came back to England
the hordes of protestants who had taken refuge in Geneva, Amster-
dam, and other continental strongholds of free thought ; they brought
back with them their own ideas of forms of worship, and soon the
Established Church, in alarm over the great and increasing numbers
of the Nonconformists, created its Star Chambers and High Commis-
sions that in their turn became almost as oppressive as had been Mary
and her Romish bishops. Everywhere the spirit of independent free
thought was abroad, and finally, in very fear for the well-being of the
Establishment, was passed in 1593 the Act of Conformity. The pur-
pose of this statute was to compel attendance upon the services of
the Established Church, and those who failed to obey its enactments
were doomed to abjure the realm and go into perpetual banishment,
or, declining to leave, or if, having departed, they should be so bold as
to return, the penalty was death. The congregations founded in
England for the time were broken up ; many of the Nonconformists
went to Holland, where they founded churches according to their own
ideas, " walking," as they claimed, " in all the ways which God had
made known or should make known to them." And here it is that
Scrooby and Delft Haven, Amsterdam and Leyden, the Speedwell
and the Mayflower, John Robinson, Elder Brewster, and Plymouth
Rock, become names at the mere mention of which New England
hearts fill with pride, and in the long retrospect of almost thrice one
hundred years are the luminous points where begin the annals of
American history. Here comes into being the wonderful compact on
the Mayflower, that fruitful germ out of which has been evolved all
our modern constitutions ; and here begins in the spirit of godliness,
with fervent prayer, and a fortitude known only to heroes' breasts, the
first settlement of New England, that was destined in the fulness of
time to grow into the great republic.
The strict proprieties of this occasion do not permit me to enter
into any detail of the early history of Plymouth ; our immediate con-
cern is with the Massachusetts Bay settlement, which, with its greater
wealth and vigor, was destined to absorb its sister colony of Plymouth.
But tack of all this movement to New England, was a high moral
250TH ANNIVERSARY 45
insistence on freedom of thought and practice in matters religious,
and no doubt the persecutions by the heads of the Establishment in
England, and the tyrannous statute of 1593, were the bitter con-
straint that led most of the early settlers to leave the comforts of
England and to undergo the privations of life in the new world. Too
much cannot be said in praise of the exalted piety and religious fervor
of the forty-one immigrants with their families on the Mayflower, but
it has often seemed to me that the voyage itself was not undertaken
with due regard to the difficulties to be met, or with such knowledge
as its projectors might have easily attained ; their voyage began too
late in the season, their numbers and supplies were inadequate, and
they settled on unfertile soil. Hence their slow progress, and hence
it was that at the end of ten years they numbered scarcely three hun-
dred souls. But still they had no dictation in matters of religion;
though their trials were great, still, as Brewster wrote, "it is not with
us as with those whom small things can discourage ; " and from
England came back the cheering words : " Let it not be grievous unto
you that you have been instrumental to break the ice for others : the
honor shall be yours to the world's end." And so with encouraging
words, and such supplies as could be furnished, the Puritans in Eng-
land had constantly in mind the little settlement in Plymouth ; eagerly
they sought to obtain a larger settlement, and finally in 1629 King
Charles granted the charter for the Massachusetts Bay.
With the issuing of the charter, the zeal for New England grew
apace. Among the country gentry and the tradespeople prospectuses
were issued, containing a description of Massachusetts ; and upon the
lists of those interested in the movement appear names, no longer of
poor men and artizans, as in the case of Robinson ten years before,
but of professional men, the proprietors of landed estates, as well as
prosperous tradesmen. Sir Richard Saltonstall, Bradstreet, Dudley,
the Winthrops, Ward, Cotton, Hooker and Roger Williams are a
sufficient guaranty of the respectability of the movement. First came
two hundred men; then April nth, 1630, came Winthrop in the
Arbella, and with him eight hundred carried in a flotilla of eleven
ships. "The fleet," says Hubbard, the historian of New England,
" was filled with passengers of all occupations, skilled in all kinds of
faculties needful for the planting of the new colony." Before the end
of the first year, it is estimated that fully fifteen hundred people had
46 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
landed on these shores : and the moral tone of the immigrants was
such as to forbid, for a time a least, the approach of mere adventurers.
In numbers like this there was certainly an adequate self defence, and
the means of the immigrants, the supplies they brought with them,
were sufficient to repel harsh physical suffering.
And what was the aspect of the country to which they came ?
No doubt the beach at Manchester responded musically to the tread
of the hunter and the fisherman ; the rocks at Marblehead and
Swampscott and Nahant reared their gigantic strength against the
terrors of the waves ; the long stretches of marshes at Newbury and
Revere were reflecting to the sun with the various months their
neutral tints ; but no husbandman then gathered into ricks their
abundant growths ; no cities then were crowding upon their virgin
domain ; over them the wild fowl screamed, and the eagle and the
hawk swept over their broad expanse in flight high poised above the
hazard of the Indian's arrow ; while beyond the reach of salt waves, on
the higher land forest followed forest in endless succession, save
where here and there an Indian encampment had been planted on hill
or headland, and the Indian squaw had cleared a bit for the indifferent
agriculture, that supplied the needs of her scanty home ; the Ipswich,
the Merrimac and the Charles flowed unpolluted and unfettered to
the sea that gave them birth. Still the sun rose in splendor from
the ocean, and sank down to his rest in the forest, flooding the earth
and the sky with the majesty of his glory, and, as he withdrew his
beam, timidly still the moon and stars came forth that the circle of
beauty might be made complete. Yes, it was nature, nature ever
beautiful, perhaps not always kindly, arrayed in her native attire,
that our ancestors met upon these shores : to her harsher moods
they accommodated themselves with fortitude ; but her more genial
seasons they utilized with foresight and industry.
The advent of so many immigrants as came within the first five
years following 1630, necessitated a removal from the coast, and, as
there was naturally an eager quest for desirable sites, the availability
of Cochichawick as a place of settlement soon became known ; for we
find as early as March 4, 1635, a vote of the General Court, whereby
" it is ordered that the land about Cochichowicke shalbe reserved for
an inland plantacon and that whosoeuer will goe to inhabite there
shall have three yeares iifiunity from all taxes, levyes, publique
250TH ANNIVERSARY 47
charges and services whatsoeuer (military discipline onlly excepted),"
and three commissioners were appointed to " license any that they
thinke meete to inhabite there, and that it shalbe lawfuU for noe pson
to goe thither without their consent or the maior pte of them."
Though set apart thus early as an inland plantation, settlers, deterred
no doubt by the falls in the Merrimac and the trackless woods, did not
come forward to acquire what was lying ready at their hands. As
the settlers, however, stretched outward more and more, the merits of
the location became better known, and soon citizens of Newtowne,
now Cambridge, presented a petition for their own occupation, and
their request might have been granted but for the intervention of that
element of personal influence which goes so far today in shaping the
course of practical legislation.
In the year 1639 there was living in Ipswich a minister of the
name of Nathaniel Ward ; originally bred to the bar in his native
country, on arriving in New England he gave up a profession that was
not much needed in the early settlements, and turned himself to the
ministry ; his training at the bar made it an easy task for him to write
*'The Body of Liberties," a masterly statement of the duties and
privileges of the freeman of New England, the first Blue Book of
Massachusetts, and his ready wit flowed out in a genial satire en-
titled " The Simple Cobbler of Agawam." Now, this Mr. Ward had
a son John who had been bred to the pulpit ; also a son-in-law, who
had studied medicine ; for both these men places were needed, and
what more natural than that the father should avail himself of his
acquaintance with the distinguished Mr. Winthrop, who had been his
neighbor at Ipswich, and was a relative by marriage, to secure for the
members of his family and their friends the as yet unappropriated
region about Cochichawick .' In December 1639 therefore, he wrote a
letter to Winthrop reminding him of his promise not to encourage
any plantation at Quichichacke or Penticutt, till he and some others
had time to speak or write further regarding it. This letter was
followed immediately by one from the son - in - law, Dr. Fyrmin, who
expressed his favorable opinion of Pentuckctt or Quichichwick by
Shawshin. Meanwhile, Mr. Ward had engaged in an active canvass
for settlers, and soon wrote again to his distinguished friend that his
company, which was preparing to go to Quickichwick the next week
to view the spot, then consisted of twenty families of very good
48 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Christians, " and," he adds " in the meantime we crave your secresy
and rest;" he remarks also that "our company increases apace from
divers towns of very desirable men, whereof we desire to be very
choise." The appeals thus made resulted in a vote passed May I3.
1640 (Colony Records), by which the entire question was committed
to the friendly care of the Governor, Deputy Governor and Mr.
Winthrop, with full power to grant the request of Mr. Ward and his
followers, provided that they give their answer within three weeks,
and that they build in Cochichawick before the next session of the
General Court. It seems probable that immediately after this vote
preparations were made for a settlement in Cochichawick, for we find
that in a letter from John Woodbridge to Winthrop written in March,
1641, he says that some of his company had "sold themselves out of
house and home," and were greatly desirous of securing a settlement
as "soone as may be." The relationship existing between John
Woodbridge and Governor Dudley^ gave a certain assurance that the
desires of the settlers would be granted. It is noticeable that Nath-
aniel Ward has entrusted the matter to John Woodbridge ; it was not
prudent for the Wards to disturb the authorities too often with their
requests, and in the meantime. Ward had received a grant of six hun-
dred acres on the Merrimac, and his son was put down for the adjoin-
ing parish of Penticutt. It was through the influence of Messrs.
Ward and Woodbridge that men from Newbury and Ipswich were
licensed to settle in Cochichawick, and it is likely that the settlement
began there as early as 1641 or 1642. It is a fact that on September
19, 1644, meetings were called at Rowley to form the church at
Haverhill and at Andover, and as the various delegates were unable
to agree,2 they separated to meet again October 2, 1645, and then the
churches were formed, and Mr. Woodbridge was appointed to the
church at Andover.
The settlement here was small at this time, for Hubbard says
that the meeting was called at Rowley because Andover and Haver-
' Woodbridge married Dudley's daughter.
' Hubbard's History of New England. Ed. 1828. Chap. 48. " But when they were
all assembled most of those who were to join together in church fellowship at that time
refused to make the confession of their faith and repentance, because, as was said, they
declared it openly before in other churches upon their admission into them. Where-
upon the members of the churches not being satisfied, the assembly broke up, before
they accomplished what they intended."
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 49
hill, " being then but newly erected were not capable to entertain them
that were likely to be gathered together on that occasion." With
his church about him, there was nothing further for Mr. Wood-
bridge to do than to acquire the legal title to his settlement, and
accordingly he sought out Cutshumache, the sagamore of the Massa-
chusetts Indians, and for the sum of £,6 and a coat Cutshumache sold
his title, and on the 6th May, 1646, the Indian went before the
general court at Boston and confirmed the sale. The story of the
transaction is complete in the Colony Records.^ The final words are
as follows , " This purchase ye Corte alowes of and have granted ye
said land to belong to ye said plantation for evr, to be ordred and dis-
posed of by them." From this time disappears the old Indian name
Cochichawick, and Andover, name dear to the settler from Hants,
name now known throughout the world, was the name applied to the
new community ; the brook is still called Cochichawick brook, while
the pond itself, which to - day as in the earliest times, draws down to
its placid bosom the forests and the adjacent hills and the sky, bears
its old Indian name.
So on the 6th day of the 3rd month of the year 1646, after the
gathering of a church, by peaceful barter with the Indians, and by
enactment of the general court, Andover as a legal entity came into
being, and in commemoration of this event come into this presence
today all who are bound to her by whatever ties of kinship or of
filial regard. To many of us it is the birthplace of ourselves, and of
our ancestors in six or seven generations, and therefore to us it is a
day of fond retrospect in matters having an immediate family interest.
Here the first settlers selected their home, and here were worked out
those puritan ideas for the establishment of which they left their
native land. On this festival day there is no place for criticism ; the
occasion calls rather for fervent gratitude that patience, fortitude and
1 Colony Records, Vol. 2, p. 159. "At a Genrall Corte at Boston the 6th 3th mo
1646 Cutshamache, sagamore of ye Massachusetts came into ye Corte & acknowledged
yt for ye sume of 6/ & a coate wch he had already received, hee had sould to Mr John
Woodbridge, in behalfe of ye inhabitants of Cochicawick, now called Andiver, all his
right, interest, & priviledge in ye land 6 miles Southward from ye towne, two miles
Eastward to Rowley bounds, be ye same more or lesse, Northward to Merrimack Ryver,
pvided yt ye Indian called Roger & his company may have librty to take alewifes in
Cochichawick River for their owne eating ; but if they either spoyle or steale any
come or other fruite, to any considrable value of ye inhabitants there, this librty of
taking fish shall forever cease & ye said Roger is still to enjoy foure acres of ground
where now he plants. This purchase" ut supra.
50 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
self-reliance have here triumphed over enormous discouragements,
and that sublime faith has been the inextinguishable torch that guided
many a weary heart through difficulties otherwise too great to be
borne. Besides, what is there to criticise ? Did not our puritan an-
cestors live up to the full height of such intelligence and character as
they possessed ? Were they not working out their own plans, in their
own methods, and in their own habitation ? It is true that they
visited upon Quakers harsh inflictions ; they fell into the awful delu-
sion of witchcraft ; they expelled Mrs. Hutchinson as a teacher of
doctrines they believed to be ruinous; they drove out Roger Williams
as a disturber of their political tenets. So far as charges against the
Puritans are based upon facts, they stand freely confessed ; there is
no disposition here to make them appear other than what they are ;
modes of thought change in like measure with conditions of life, and
that is all the answer that we today need to make to any criticism
from within or without. Our methods are not as the methods of our
ancestors ; our thoughts not as their thoughts : true progress, alike
in physical and intellectual well-being, forbids that they should be.
To the student of history it must ever be a matter of wonder
how and where our ancestors learned their method of self-government.
In the country from which they came they had, and could have had,
no experience in a form of government so salutary and so completely
their own as that which they established in New England. As a con-
gregation of worshippers they had, and insisted upon, a government
by themselves of all matters relating to their church, and when, after
their settlement in this country, they found themselves charged with
civic as well as religious duties and obligations, it was but natural that
the congregational system should be extended to the civil government ;
and thus, from the day of the earliest settlement, where or when we
cannot say, the town meeting became the means by which the civil
and ecclesiastical affairs of the settlement were regulated, and through
it the communities enjoyed complete self-government. Scarcely less
wonderful than this was the practice of making record of everything
that was transacted in the church and town alike. Beyond the
recording of births and marriages, their experience had given them
nothing of this kind, yet it was necessary that the grants of land
should be recorded, and the practice of recording them developed soon
after the settlement into the system of county registries, while an
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 5 1
equal utility would easily convince them that the records of town
meetings might be very convenient for reference. Besides this, one
cannot avoid the thought that our ancestors felt they were engaged in
a unique and heroic undertaking, and that therefore they must trace
clearly all the stages of their progress. Andover forms no exception
to these excellent practices, and from the first beginnings of the town,
no doubt records were kept. But in those early days the records were
always in the custody of the town clerk, and as the incumbent of the
office changed from time to time the books suffered in the transmis-
sion, and the result is that for the first fifteen or eighteen years, after
the birth of Andover, we have no consecutive record. The leaves of
such portions of it as are left are stained yellow with age, and their
edges are often worn. This is true alike of the records of the town
meetings and of the grants of land. It is not a fact, as is sometimes
asserted, that the early records were burned ; but April loth, 1698, it
was voted that Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, Capt. Christopher Osgood
and Mr. Andrew Peters be a committee to "receive anew ye records
of ye towne lands according to what papers may be found that have
been upon record before, our towne record being taken away by ye
enemy indians." The record from 166 1 down to the present time is
legible and entirely consecutive. But whatever befell the records for
the first eighteen years had happened to them as early as 1656, for the
clerk of the meeting held on the 9th of March of that year at the
house of John Osgood, had written in his record, as a justification for
having a new book before him, that the old book was rent and in
many places defective ; and he further states that the meeting " was
chiefly warned and intended for the entering and recording of Towne
orders now in force and particular mens graunts of Land," and the
vote is written down requiring the names of all persons who had con-
tributed to the rates and charges of the town to be entered in the new
book. But later, this vote was "disannulled" "by the major part of
voats at a lawfull town meeting the 2 of December 1661," and two
lines are drawn across the original record ; of this latter meeting how-
ever there is no trace.
While we are thus deprived of any extended knowledge of any-
thing that happened, let us say from £643 to 1661, one leaf of great
value is found in the old records and is now in a form available to all ;
however reminiscent this list may have been in its origin, of its an-
52 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
tiquity there can be no doubt ; that is confirmed alike by the hand-
writing, by the discoloration, and by the condition of the margin of
the sheet ; but there is no date upon it and nothing by which its exact
time can be determined. It purports to give the names of "all the free
househoulders in order as they came to towne." No date is fixed when
they or any of them arrived in Cochichawick, but we know that
Richard Barker was settled here as early as 1643, for the industry of
Miss Bailey has discovered a deed running to him and bearing that
date, in which he is described as of Cochichawick. The records of
the North Parish Church, gathered in 1645, give the names of the ten
persons who gathered at the foundation ; in that list is found the name
of Richard Blake who stands fifteenth in the roll of the early settlers ;
if therefore full credence is to be given to this list of freeholders, it
would fix the date of the arrival of Blake and of all on the list prior to
him as sometime preceding October, 1645.
The words " in order as they came to towne " are to be under-
stood as meaning in the order in which land was granted to them.
This would make Mr. Bradstreet the first grantee of land in the town,
which is not unlikely to be the fact, though from records available
elsewhere, it would seem that as late as 1645 he was a citizen of
Ipswich, and in the history of Ipswich his removal to Andover is
noted in 1645.
The growth in population was not rapid ; the list of the first free-
holders is probably accurate as the list of rateable polls, say up to the
year 1650. It contains only twenty-three names, but by a vote
passed in town meeting January 6, 1672, requiring every citizen to run
the bounds of his estate with his " naybors " before the last of May,
on the penalty of forfeiting five shillings and the same amount for
each month's delay thereafter, a list is found of thirty who had run
their bounds in accordance with the order, while fifteen are marked
under the unequivocal heading of " Delinquents." To the honor of
four of the unfortunate fifteen it should be said that they afterward
did their duty, and a line was drawn through their names. At the
time of this town order the number of freeholders may be taken as
forty-five, but whether the list was made out in 1672 or 1676, when
the vote was reaffirmed, no man can tell, for the list is without a date.
Abbott^ states the rateable polls in 1679 as 88, and from year to year
they increase at an average rate of about four freeholders per year.
' History of Andover, p. 180.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 53
It is the peculiar felicity of this two hundred and fiftieth anni-
versary that, without any charge of egotism or vain boasting, we may
point with pride to the beauty of our scenery ; to hill and intervale,
rich, and producing wealth under the influence of intelligent agricul-
ture ; to mill streams turning the wheels of profitable enterprise ; to
Andover's honorable and respectable history ; to the ready response
she has given to every call that state or nation has made upon her ;
to her admirable public schools ; to the private institutions that,
founded by her own citizens, have sent her fame throughout the
civilized world. And now if it be true, as an old philosopher has said,
that nothing is evolved which was not first involved, if it be true that
all the oaks that adorn your hill sides were contained in the acorn that
first broke its shell under the influence of sun and rain, may we not
claim that this full florescence of Andover that delights the eye and
fills the mind today, is only the ripening and expanding product of the
puritan germ ? and shall we not go one step further and claim that in
all that she is, and all that she has been, Andover is the representative
puritan town ?
All these are high claims, but they are made after careful perusal
of the records, and in full knowledge of the facts. From beginning
to end 1 have read the records of Andover, with a filial fondness, and
in the full belief that this is a day having a sweet human interest for
every descendant of the early settlers, — a day when we turn back
from the noise and delights of modern progress to tread in the foot-
steps of those who have gone before. Those records are in many
places hard to decipher, and the subject matter rarely ceases to be
commonplace and dull. Great events like the descent of Indians
upon the town are not mentioned save as it was necessary to raise
money for defence ; a dark shadow like witchcraft left no mark except
upon the records of the selectmen, who laboriously spread out their
efforts to put the five children of Samuel Wardwell with reputable
families, who " were to find them with suteable food, clothing and
physick " during their terms of service, and " double suite of apparell "
at the end of it. But commonplace as the records are, one rises from
a perusal of them with the thought that these people were serious,
businesslike and direct ; that they did, and required every man to do,
his citizen duty up to the full measure of his ability ; that they
governed themselves diligently, trying to make the burden fall equally
on all who should bear it.
54 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Of course, in this clearing in the wilderness, at first there were no
roads ; but free communication from house to house, and from the
dwelling houses to the meeting house, was demanded, and accordingly
it is not surprising that almost the first vote found in the records
relates to repairs upon the roads : " Every male person of sixteen
years and upwards shall upon three or four days warning by the
survaiers attend the mending of the highwaies upon forfit of double
damages for every day neglect by any person ; and soe likewise every
teame ; that is every man seven shillings a day ; and every teame ten
shillings a day so neglected.^"
It was essential also that the grants of land should be recorded,
in order to avoid confusion of ownership, and accordingly, Edmund
Fawkner^ was chosen to enter them, and was "to be allowed twoe shil-
lings of every particular man for his house lott and accomodations
provided every man bring in his graunts to him within seven years."
This important work was afterward undertaken by Dudley Bradstreet ^
and later* he was chosen again to " enter all graunts in ye great towne
booke for which he is to have two pence a graunt in money, or else
he is not obliged." With a view again to determine the boundaries
of estates, a vote was passed ^ requiring every proprietor of lands,
unfenced or lying in common, to run his bounds with his " naybor "
before the last of May, marking them by trees, or heaps of stones, or
holes in the ground, upon penalty of five shillings, and the same
amount for each month's neglect thereafter ; and this vote was re-
affirmed in January, 1676, and all returns were to be made to the
selectmen before the last of May of that year, upon the penalty of
five shillings for each neglect. This penalty was to be collected by
the constables, and if they failed to distrain it, they were to pay the
forfeit themselves. Reflecting for a moment that the constables
themselves were fined five pounds if they declined to serve after being
elected to their office, we see how efficient was the governmental
machinery that our ancestors set in motion over themselves.
The town meeting was the centre from which radiated all the
authority of the town. Here in the church or meeting house the
freeholders met in committee of the whole to discuss the affairs of
* October 17, 1661. * January i, 1677.
* February 3, 1661. 'January 6, 1672.
"January 5, 1673.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 55
the town, and all government proceeded from it, clad with authority
and might. Majorities always governed. By a vote of December 20,
1664, seven persons authorized by law to vote were declared to be a
quorum, and their acts were to be as " authentick and valid as if the
whole town were assembled." Attendance upon town meeting was to
be not only encouraged, but enforced, and, accordingly, for a failure
to attend any legally notified meeting, a forfeit of six pence is imposed,
unless the persons in default shall "satisfie the Towne or such as
they shall depute that they had just and necessary cause to be
absent " ; and that a citizen might not keep the letter of the law by
dropping into the meeting house to escape paying his fine, it was
further voted, that no citizen in attendance upon the meeting should
" depart from it without leave of the Towne till the meeting be dis-
solved, and soe declared by the Selectmen or the maior part of the
inhabitants then assembled." By a vote passed later,^ the fine was
increased to twelve pence for each day's neglect of town meeting,
and as Mr. Bradstreet, Richard Barker, George Abbott, Sr., and John
Johnson were not present at the meeting, they were condemned to pay
six pence each to the town for the " present day's neglect." These
votes no doubt had their desired result, but it may be that some petu-
lant inhabitant, finding himself at town meeting and condemned to
stay there until full discussion was over, took revenge by incessant
talking. To check his flow of eloquence, votes were passed "^ that, " if
any man shall speak in the towne meeting while anything of towne
affaires is either in voting or agitation after ye moderator hath com-
manded silence twice, he shall forfeit twelve pence per time, and said
twelve pence shall be levied by the constable, and this order to stand
good for ever." Odd as these votes sound to us today, they sufficiently
attest the importance that our ancestors attached to the town-meeting,
and to the performance there by every citizen of those duties that
devolved upon him as a member of a self-governing community.
The subjects discussed in town meeting were as various as the
numerous interests of a town that demanded protection for everything
it could justly claim as its own, and that had an exalted notion of self-
preservation. Accordingly there are found most careful regulations
covering property in which the whole body of citizens had an interest,
' January 18, 1664.
' January 5 and February 2, 1673.
56 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
with a view to give each citizen some portion of the product, or make
the acquisition of it easy for him. Valuable fishing privileges in the
Merrimac were granted to Capt. Bradstreet and his associates.^ These
privileges were to extend up the Shawshin from its confluence with
the Merrimac to the bridge, then twenty rods up the Merrimac,
twenty rods down the Merrimac, then twenty rods from each of these
last lines into the stream. This privilege was to last for twenty-one
years, with no rental for the first ten years, and for the last eleven
years they were to pay to the town ten shillings per annum. But yet
the public is protected, for they are to sell "base" at 5d per piece
provided those that buy, buy two at one time, and, that the highest
equity may be preserved, and the interest of the buyer and seller alike
may be protected, the party buying is to choose one, and the party
selling to choose the other.^ And in 1696^ liberty is given other
citizens to build a fish "ware" in the Merrimac, "opposite Major
Bradstreet his ground," and these grantees were also to sell to "ye
inhabitants shad, att any price, not exceeding twelve pence ye score,
and ye inhabitants of the town to be supplied before strangers." The
nimble alewife coursing up the brooks to Haggett's (then Blanchard's),
or Cochichawick, to lay his spawn, was the subject of an almost yearly
vote ; under a penalty of five pounds none of the fish were to be caught
except for consumption in the taker's family ; * the fish courses are to
be kept open, and finally it is enacted that the fish may be caught
only at certain definite places and upon certain fixed days of the week.
And so the cedar that grew about the pond, useful alike for rails
and timber, was guarded with a view to its preservation. No man
was to be allowed to cut it down in order to sell it out of town, with-
out the authority of the selectmen ; ^ here the forfeit was ten shillings
per tree ; but where trees had fallen down, any citizen might go into
1 February 2, 1680.
' " Ye partie buying to choose one, ye partie selling to chose another, and if ye partie
buying chose rather to pay 3d per piece for base in money ye owners of sd priviledge shall
not refuse ye same provided as abovesd they buy 2 at a time each."
' May 4.
* March 7, 1686. Voted and passed that noe fish called alewives shall be stopped by
any person whatsoever in their going up into ye pond, but what shall be caught att ye mill
in their passage except for eating in their families upon ye forfeiture of five pounds and sd
person to be suable that shall soe doe by any that finds themselves agrieved."
' January 6, 1672.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 57
the common or swamp and cut shingles out of the fallen trees, and
even sell them out of town, provided he paid eighteen pence for every
thousand that he sold out of town. This was a vote of 1672, but
after January i, 1675,^ none were to be taken out of town upon a
penalty of twenty shillings for every thousand shingles. In 1677 the
old vote was restored, but still no tree was to be felled for shingles,
only such trees as had fallen down might be used. So eagerly was
this valuable growth protected, and we are not surprised to find that
when Joshua Woodman, a new freeholder, wanted enough shingles to
cover his house, he was allowed not exceeding seven thousand " which
is to be old shift and short shingles ;" ^ and it seems quite natural
that the selectmen should be ordered ^ to prosecute Thomas Fuller at
the next term at Salem or Ipswich, for cutting down a great many
cedar trees on the bounds of Andover contrary to the town's order
and without their knowledge.
The town in its early days presented an admirable example of
that species of policy known in political economy as the Mercantile
System, a system whose cardinal doctrine was that acquisition only
is wealth. This economic principle was well established in many
European countries at the time our ancestors settled here, but greater
experience in commerce, and a less selfish view of trade, have left
nothing of this system. Yet to the settlers of a little New England
village, to which nothing ever came except by the efforts of its
citizens, a community that was weak in everything but its desire to
help itself, this system was needed even for its preservation, and the
utmost economy was necessarily practised over all its slender re-
sources. It was out of the stern necessities of their situation and
the very isolation of their position that grew their encouragement of
the tanning industry,* the grist mill,^ the saw mill, the fulling mill,^
1 February i, 1674.
' March ii, 1678.
« " Ye fift day of March 1676/7."
* February i, 1675.
' January 18, 1664.
•March 6th, 1681-2 : " Granted libertie to any man in ye towne to sett up a saw mill
£Eulling mill & grist mill upon Shawshin River near Rogers Brooke to take up twentie acres
of Land adjoining to ye sd place and to enjoy ye same for ever with ye privileges of a
townsman," and a committee of five is appointed "to act in this affair to make articles
with such person or persons as they shall judge fitt and their sd act to be binding to ye
58 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
and even the iron mill.^ But after all their hardy industry triumphed,
and later we get evidence perhaps that the town, outgrowing its home
market, was reaching out its hands for a larger field of effort. In
1697^ sufficient timber was voted to Major March of Newbury to build
two vessels of not exceeding fifty tons apiece, provided he build the
same in Andover. But shortly after this, March was called into the
Indian War, and the plan slumbered until 1710,^ when it was again
voted in terms less confident than before, that " Col. March should
have liberty of trying the experiment of building a sloop in some con-
venient place for launching into Merrimake Rivers," and if he did not
find sufficient lumber already felled, he was to have the liberty of
" cutting half a dozen sticks for some choise use for the vessell." For
some reason which does not appear, March did not complete his sloop,
for in 1 71 2* liberty is granted to John Aslebe to cut "what timber is
necessary for the Building of a vessell of about forty tons." But here
the record of Andover as a ship building town closes ; no further men-
tion is made of the sloop, whether she was finished or launched, or of
her name or fate. Of what use she could have been, except perhaps
as a hay or ferry boat to cross the Merrimac, is not apparent now, for
a sloop of such size could never pass Mitchell's Falls, and would have
been equally useless in crossing the rapids where the Lawrence dam
has since been built.
There was nothing too minute to escape the directing care of the
citizens or of the selectmen, their chosen representatives. A new
cemetery is called for by the citizens living on the west side of Shaw-
shin ; one acre of land is granted them for that purpose, provided
they "fence it handsomely against swine and other creatures" within
a year from the date of the vote.^ The funeral cloth is becoming old
and rusty, and accordingly it was voted and passed^ " that a handsome
' Voted and passed that ye towne will allowe such incouragement both of wood land &
mine towards ye setting up of iron works as may be most convenient for ye same & least
prejudiciall to ye to'^-ne & not to damnify ye mill upon Shawshin River, provided ye owners
agree with ye Committee according to ye towne order, ye saw mill in sd order excepted."
And January 19, 1697, it it is voted that " any mine yt may be found upon ye common
shall be free for any man to digg & carry to sd works."
' January 19, 1696.
' March 5, 17 10.
* January 12, 1712.
' February 6, 1892.
• May 24, 1703.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 59
piece of Black Broad cloath be bought for a funerall cloath for the
towne use." The grass in the burying ground in the North Parish is
profitable for hay or pasture, and John Abbot, who gets forty shillings
a year as janitor of the meeting-house, pays five pence per annum for
the use of the burying place "for feeding with sheep and calves," but
he is not to suffer any other creature to come into it, and he is to keep
up the fcnce.^ Mrs. Carrier and her children are smitten " with that con-
tagious disease the small pox," and, as some person was so inconsider-
ate as to suggest that the care of them belonged to the town, the select-
men, with great dignity, write a letter to the family of the Carriers
commending them to the gentle care of their relatives, and absolving
themselves from any responsibility for their presence in the town,
because the selectmen had warned them out on their arrival into town.
But at the same time the selectmen laid strict charge upon Walter
Wright, the constable, not to allow the patients to come out of their
houses to the public meeting, or elsewhere, and " what they want, let
them acquaint you with, which provide for them out of their estates." ^
This was a self-contained and self-governing community, and
therefore, as might be expected, there are found from time to time,
records of votes in town meeting, by which new freeholders are
admitted to citizenship, and the terms are always prescribed ^. In
this way the stamina of the organization was maintained of those
"choise" citizens that Woodbridge had in mind when he wrote to Gov.
Winthrop. But if the community had a right to choose freeholders,
it would equally be entitled to expel any persons who were likely to
be a charge upon the town. Hence the vote warning out Mrs. Car-
rier and her brood, and later the constable was ordered to warn three
men and their families, "least they prove a futer charge to the
The government established by our ancestors had many theo-
cratic elements ; as a government of towns, it was by freeholders,
that is, owners of lands and houses in their own right, for a church ;
* October ag, 1689.
•October 14, 1690.
' January 4, 1674. " Graunted to Francis Faulkner ye privilege of townesman, up-
on ye amount of ye land he now enjoys he paying for ye same as others doe, that is ten
shillings for twenty acres."
* January 30, 1719.
6o ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
the church, as we have seen, was the central meeting house for pur-
poses alike of government and of religious instruction and edification ;
its site was always the geographical centre of the community that
gathered it, and, like the sun, it was the source of light and all higher
enkindling influences. Hence the authority that surrounded the
preacher, and hence his position in the puritan community, a position
at once dignified and esteemed with the highest reverence. Andover
formed no exception in these matters to the regular puritan method,
and it is not surprising therefore, that many of the early votes of the
town relate to the support of the clergyman and the maintenance of
his official dignity in their midst. Hence it is that, as early as i66i,^
a vote is found defining to Mr. Dane his rights and privileges, and
confirming to him his grants of land : and when later some dispute
had arisen about the rates to be paid by new settlers, probably toward
the minister's support, it was voted ^ that this rate was to be ten
shillings for every householder, " the one half in wheat, ye other half
in indian come," and, as the tendency to get out of public obligations
lightly was as well understood then as now, it was felt necessary to
add that both should be " merchantable and at the usuall prise it goeth
in towne from man to man." An hundred acres of land were held by
trustees for the minister's benefit,^ and it was doubtless from this that
Mr. Woodbridge and his successor, Mr. Francis Dane, got their supply
of wood ; but afterward this was changed, and the minister got wood,
or expected it, by direct contribution from the citizens, each man
providing wood in proportion to the amount he paid toward the min-
ister's rates.* But here too human weakness had its way, and in
1690 so many of the good folks were delinquent, it was voted ° that the
selectmen [be authorized to] issue their warrants to the constables to
"distreine upon each deliquent after ye rate of three shillings p load &
provide sd wood themselves out of sd fines, ye remainder to be to ye
1 February 17.
2 January I, 1676.
* January 3, 1686. " Voted that Mr. Barnard's wood shall be payd in long wood & to
be proportioned as the towne shall afterwards agree." "Voted and passed that ye Select-
men for this year shall be a committee for this year for ye proportioning of each man's
share of wood to be payd to Mr. Barnard according to every man's rate for this year which
they are forthwith to doe & to signifie to ye inhabitants."
' January 5, 1690.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 61
use of ye towne." In 1693 it was necessary to reaffirm this vote, and
as Mr. Barnard after that still suffered from the delinquency of his
parishioners, a vote was finally passed ^ by which he was paid eight
pounds in consideration of his supply of wood, and the burning ques-
tion was settled.
Scarcely less important than the support of the minister was the
matter of seating the people in the church. Our ancestors had
brought over from England strict ideas of social precedence, and,
though they started here on the same dull level of privation and hard-
ship, their attention to this inferior detail was scarcely less devoted
than that paid to the doctrines of the teacher ; votes were constantly
passed, appointing committees to attend to this duty, and as constantly
heart burnings and jealousies arose out of their decisions. Yet from
their final word there was no appeal, and " if any person, either male
or female, shall sitt in any other place in ye meeting house than where
they are appointed by ye aforsd Committee they shall forfeit for
every such offence to ye use of ye towne 20 ^^ to be forthwith gath-
ered by ye constables by order fro sd Committee and if the constable
faileth to doe as aforesd, to pay sd sum himself." ^ There is a clear
and determined tone about this vote, as if the matter were one of
tremendous importance, and one about which there was and could be
no equivocation. The work on this committee was odious to all affected
by it, and no wonder that blunt Dudley Bradstreet refused to dis-
charge the irksome task, protesting "against haveing anything to do
with it." '^
This was a social concern ; it related merely to one of the pro-
prieties within the sacred precincts ; but alongside of it were grave
matters of discipline that also received the attention of the citizens.
The young persons up there in the upper gallery of the meeting house,
the gallery that in summer was hot and stifling and in winter was too
cold for endurance, would naturally, under the influence of the long
exercises and the uncushioned seats, fall into a state of impatience,
not to say of physical pain, that could be repressed only with great
difficulty. Hence the necessity of the tything men to keep them in
' March 12, 1704.
^ February 2, 1680.
' March 5, 1693.
62 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
order. Coming into being in our early annals, these picturesque^
officials continued their useful function down to the year 1841, when
for the first time there ceases to be a mention of them in the records
of the town meeting. Their general duty was "to have inspection
over the boys in the galleries on the Sabbath, that they might be con-
tained in order in time of publick exercise ; " and later their juris-
diction was extended to the hour between the services. When these
boys came rushing out of their gallery at the expiration of the forenoon
service, many a devout worshiper, I am afraid, might well have
applied to himself Milton's description of the hell hounds in Paradise
Lost, as they,
Afresh with conscious terrors vex me round.
That rest or intermission none I find."*
All this " prophaneness of ye Sabbath tended to ye great dis-
honour of God, scandall of religion, and ye grief of many serious
christians," and the tything men and constables are ordered^ to "take
care to pvent such great and shameful miscarriages which are soe
much observed and complained of." But the trouble continued with-
out abatement apparently, for March 16, 1696, more strenuous orders
are passed by the selectmen requiring the tything men to report in
writing to the minister the names of all offenders ; it was the minis-
ter's duty to give them fair warning for their first offence, and if after
this admonition they are again detected, the officers are to turn them
over to the next justice of the peace "that they may be punished for
such crimes as the law directs." Twenty-four tything men were
appointed by this order of March 16, 1696, two of whom were to act
in the galleries each month. The tything man's duty was uncongenial,
and there is one record of a refusal to serve. Joseph Stevens had
• Josiah Quincy in a letter to Harriet Beecher Stowe gives a description of the tything
man as he, while a student in the Academy, saw the official in the South Church : " In
the left hand gallery sat the ladies, in the right the gentlemen, in the midst of whom and in
front sat the tything man, with his white pole, three or four cubits in length, the emblem of
his dignity and power, and in his right hand a short hazel rod, which ever and anon in the
midst of the sermon, to the awakening and alarm of the whole congregation, he would,
with the whole force of his arm, bring down with a ringing slap on the top of the gallery,
shaking it, at the same time, with a terrific menace, at two or three frightened urchins who
were whispering or playing in a corner."
' Book 2, line 800.
* March 4, 1691.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 63
been appointed in 1682, but, as he declined the office, he was ordered
by a town vote ^ to sit among the boys for three months to come, or
to pay twenty shillings to the constable for the use of the town, and a
like penalty was to be paid by all others who should receive election
to the office and then refuse to serve. The tything men had also a
certain police duty other than this to perform, for, "ye i6th ye i
month 1679/80" the selectmen pass solemn vote as follows :
" We have also ordered that whosoever shall enterteine any person or persons
in his house whout just occasion and without there be sich buisness as shall be
warrantable and as shall render a satisfactorye account thereof to sich as have power
to make inquisition after sich persons, being so found after nine of ye clock at night,
the persons so entertaining shall by ys order be liable to pay to ye use of the towne
the sum of five shillings for every sich offence and on ye last day of ye week at night
and Sabbath day nights young persons are [not] alowed to be abroad nor enter-
teined without just occasion extraordinarye, and the tithing men are required care-
fully to inspect sich houses where psons are wont to resort that by their carfull
inspection this order may be observed and prosecuted, ye above sum to be gathered
by ye constable duely by warrant from ye selectmen and ye like penaltie of five
shillings is to be alike gathered of those psons yt are unseasonably from their owne
So careful was this little community that the slumbers of its
hard working citizens should not be broken after the curfew rang, and
so watchful were they that the safeguard of home influences might be
cast over the morals of its younger members.
The cause of sound learning did not flourish in Andover in the
early days, a fact all the more surprising in view of her great reputa-
tion later as a center of educational influence. By a colonial statute
passed in 1647, every town of fifty families was required to maintain
a school for the public education of children. The number of rateable
polls in 1679 was eighty-eight, while in 1700 it had increased to one
hundred and forty-five. It seems surprising therefore that no school
was established until about 1702. But yet the town had not been
wholly without instruction, for the ministers and the " school-dames "
no doubt gave private lessons, and in 1679 (January 5) the following
vote was passed: — " Graunted to Goodwife Barker, Jr., in considera-
tion of ye benefit ye towne has received by her teaching their children,
six acres of land somewhere near her husband's pond ground." The
Mrs. Barker here mentioned was doubtless a " school-dame," and the
^ January 7, 1683.
64 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
wife of Richard Barker, Jr., and the services she rendered at a time
when education was as difficult to gain as money, justly entitled her to
the recognition that this vote implies. February 3, 1 701, it was voted
that a " Convenient Schoolhouse be erected at ye parting of ye ways
by Joseph Wilsons to be twenty foot long and sixteen foot wide." The
building was soon finished, for, by a vote^ passed the following year,
two pence per week were to be paid for instruction in reading, and four
pence for writing and ciphering. In 1703 ^ the selectmen were author-
ized " to agree with a schoolmaster for the year ensuing, and to assess
upon the inhabitants as the law directs to Rays money to defray
our minister's Rates, a Schoolmaster's Salary," and other necessary
charges. But schoolmasters in those days were hard to find, and it is
a fair inference that none could be found until 1704,^ when Dudley
Bradstreet agreed with the selectmen to take the school for ^^8 12s.
per quarter. From this time there seems to have been no diffi-
culty in obtaining schoolmasters, one at least was regularly engaged,
and as the town increased and instruction was needed in the outlying
districts, the schoolmaster went the rounds of the town. This is well
shown in the case of Timothy Walker, — significant name, — who was
engaged in 1728 * for one quarter at the rate of £$0 per annum. He
was sent to "ye South end of sd Town and Contineed there untill the
Last of January, and then was sent and Contineed in middle of the
Town unto ye last of February next, and then was sent behind the
Pond on ye 3d day of March, and to Continew there fourteen-nights,
and then ye ist March was ordered to ye middle of ye Town and
continied there nine weeks." In 17 14 it was voted that the select-
men and schoolmaster should " compound together with the school-
master's Complyance wherewith to serve the one halfe part of his
time in the north precinct and the other halfe in the south precinct
for the benefit of the whole." ^ A school house in the South Parish
was finally finished in 171 8, and it would seem that this school was
equal in all respects to the one first established in the North Parish,
and they are referred to generally as the Centre or the Grammar
School. And in 1754^ it was voted that the Grammar School should
keep the whole year round. This vote deprived the children in the
1 January 5, 1702. * December 23.
•March I. 8 March 16.
' Nov. 24. * March 8.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 65
outlying districts of their opportunity to get instruction, and question
arose at once what should be done for them. In 1754^ the town
declined to raise any fund for the support of " Reading, Righting and
Cifering Schools in the outscurts of the Town." But the agitation
was kept up, and in 1758 ^ a vote was passed creating six schools in
the outskirts, but no such schools were to be within one mile and a
half from the centre schools, and they were to be elementary schools
for " Reading, Righting and Cifering." The curriculum for the
Grammar Schools was broad enough to fit boys for college, but
when Phillips Academy was founded in 1778, the school at the
South Parish gradually lost its importance and soon disappeared
for ever, while the school in the North Parish continued to exist,
though feebly, until 1799, when, with the foundation of Franklin
Academy, it finally died out, and the function of a Grammar School
as a fitting school in the classics ceased altogether.
As the first fruits of the new school system, in March, 1736,
it was voted " there shall be a law book bought at ye sd town's cost
for ye use of ye said town, — for ye town clerk and his successors to
have it in keeping."
These votes will suffice to show how far the citizens had control
over their own affairs ; what a measure of self-government they en-
joyed, and how careful they were to preserve to their own uses such
slight advantages as they possessed, and how, as they increased in
their ability to support themselves, as they got a firmer hold on the
land, their view broadened out to the necessity of progress in intellec-
tual and moral directions. The subjects of the foregoing votes were
closely personal to the citizen ; they arose out of necessities that had
their origin among the settlers as co-laborers to one end in a small
community ; these citizens discharged every duty, they met every obli-
gation manfully and faithfully, nor shall we find a less degree of
loyalty in that larger relation, when they were called by the central
authority at Boston to do their duty as a part of the Colony of Massa-
chusetts Bay, nor when, emancipated by their own act, as part of the
State of Massachusetts, they fought the battle for a complete inde-
pendence of the mother country.
Alongside of these votes, that indicate high capacity for
' May 20.
' September 21.
66 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
rational conduct, must be placed an historical fact that points to an
abnegation of reason and a complete loss of self-control. In the
session of the general court held May lo, 1648, a vote was passed
that the course that had been taken in England for the discovery of
witches, that is by watching them a certain time, should be adopted
here, and it was ordered that this custom, as being the best and surest
way, be put in practice immediately. This vote was undoubtedly
designed to meet the case of Margaret Jones of Charlestown, who was
executed for witchcraft in 1648. She was accused and convicted of
having so malignant a touch that she communicated deafness, vomit-
ing, or some violent pain upon whomsoever she laid her hand.^ This
was the beginning of the persecutions for witchcraft, and from time
to time other unfortunates met a like unworthy end up to the year
1692, when the detestable hurricane broke in fury over Salem and
Andover. In Salem Village, or Danvers as we know it now, some
young girls, at first for sport, but finally crazed with the spirit of in-
vestigation into the occult world, had worked their minds into such a
state of frenzy that they fell into an hysteria, from which the crude
medical science of the day could not relieve them. The doctors, thus
baffled, referred their afflictions to the visitation of an evil spirit ; this
suggestion in a Christian community made the matter a proper subject
of inquiry by clergymen, and the latter, after special prayer and con-
sideration, solemnly decided that the girls were possessed of a devil.
This finding was at once communicated to the girls, and they immedi-
ately suggested certain persons of no worth about the town, vagrants
or objects of charity, as the source through which Satan had entered
into them. Too literal an interpretation of scripture texts had given
the devil a very definite existence in puritan communities, and as
his alleged indwelling in these dependents was likely to make them
undesirable citizens, it is not surprising that the town was speedily
rid of their presence. We are not informed that the sufferers were
restored to health, but their experience, in the opinion of their
neighbors, had gifted them with an enormous power ; it was felt that
they had a clairvoyance to detect disease, as infallibly as the lode-
stone reveals iron, and, accordingly, whenever a sickness baffled the
limited intelligence of the doctors, the spectre evidence of these girls
was sought, and they invariably referred the ills of sufferers to the
^ Hutchinson's History.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 67
witchery of some person. It happened in 1692 that the wife of
Joseph Ballard of Andover had been sick for a long time with a disease
that the doctors could not cure ; tired of the uncertainties of medicine,
her husband determined to test the surer method of spiritual cure,
and, accordingly, two girls from Salem were summoned to pass upon
Mrs. Ballard's case. With great solemnity, on their arrival in the
town, they were escorted to the church, and Mr. Barnard, the associate
minister with Mr. Dane, uttered fervent prayer for their guidance and
exhorted them, quite pertinently it would seem, to tell the truth.
With infallible accuracy, no doubt, the clairvoyant girls pointed out
the sources of the malign influence ; persons in Andover and in other
places were indicated, and were at once arrested upon warrants and
imprisoned in Salem jail.
With this as a beginning, the madness of witchcraft started in
Andover ; like some foul miasma it tainted for almost a year the whole
community, sweeping away to death, or harsh imprisonment, or the
terrors of a trial conducted by hostile judges, the innocent child,
the blameless wife and mother, and the industrious father of the
The jail at Salem was filled with alleged lymphatics, half starved
and half frozen, bound hand and foot, who, though conscious to them-
selves of no wrong, were yet the victims of the pitiless scorn of their
neighbors, and knew full well that the whole apparatus of government
was interested in their conviction. Forty-one persons of Andover
were indicted ; of these eight were condemned, and of the eight, before
the general jail delivery, three were executed. Their names are
Martha Carryer, Samuel Wardwell and Mary Parker. I name
them to honor them ; let there be pity only for their accusers and
The frenzy pervaded every rank in the social scale of the town.
In the family of Thomas Carryer, it hurried ofif the wife to the scaffold,
imprisoned the sons, and made a little girl of eight years a witness
against her mother ; at the other extreme of the social scale, the vener-
able Francis Dane, then in his seventy-sixth year, suffered the condem-
nation of a daughter and granddaughter, while one other daughter, a
daughter-in-law, and two other grandchildren were accused. The
spectre evidence had pointed its finger to the wife of Dudley Brad-
street, while Dudley himself, who as justice had examined some of
68 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
the accused, growing weary of the task, and fearing probably that his
conduct might subject himself to accusation, sequestered himself
until the fury was spent.
It is not easy to conceive the turmoil and horror of those
months. No man or woman could tell, no matter how exemplary
his life or conduct, or how charitable his deeds, when the accusa-
tion would be made against him ; nor if once arrested, no accused
person could say what trusted friend might appear to condemn
him. In the trial of cases a certain terror seemed to pervade the
mind, of the witnesses ; leading questions were put, and answers having
a meaning only for the moment were given. Again and again, as
those who were examined, awoke out of their trance of terror, they
changed their evidence, declaring that they had no knowledge of the
things to which they had formerly testified, that they had given their
evidence under fear and compulsion, that they had said the things
they had been told to say. As the fell frenzy raged through the
community, the only way to avoid an accusation was to become an
accuser, and, accordingly, the number of the afflicted increased every
day, and the number of the accused in like measure. Those who
confessed and recanted escaped, while those who stoutly maintained
their innocence, like Martha Carryer, were convicted.
It is difficult to define accurately the psychological aspects of
witchcraft. To bring a charge of this nature no doubt often served
the uses of private malice and revenge ; but here was a people of
industrious habits, condemned by the nature of their existence to
harsh manual toil, and likely therefore to develop a strong common
sense in matters of every day concern ; yet black cats and broom-
sticks, and baptisms by the devil, and firm compacts with him, had so
far got the ascendency over their minds that this mad frolic of un-
reason possessed them for a twelvemonth to the exclusion of every
finer feeling. And, stranger still, they refused to listen to their once
venerated guide. The manhood of Rev. Francis Dane, who for forty-
four years had been the minister of the church, revolted against the
senseless excitement, yet no one listened to his words, and he barely
escaped an accusation himself. To his honor, be it said, that through-
out it all he stood stedfastly against every manifestation of the evil,
the one sane mind in all the community. But this was a people of
extreme religious fervor ; they walked with God as no other people
250TH ANNIVERSARY 69
had walked with Him before, and as other peoples in the dim outlines
" Oft forsook
Their Living Strength, and unfrequented left
His righteous altar, bowing lowly down
To bestial Gods,"
SO perhaps this people in the very excesses of their zeal, turned aside
for the moment from their customary reliance upon His goodness, and
beheld Him chastening them for their sins, and allowing the spirit of
malice to prevail among them. It is a sad blight upon an otherwise
respectable community, and I turn from it and its sickening horrors,
with a certain sense of congratulation that nothing akin to it has ever
again reared its dark and odious presence in this community, and that
the liberalism of the present day is the surest guaranty against its
second malevolent approach.
When our ancestors settled in these parts, they found the red
man the sole possessor of the soil ; he lived an easy indolent life,
arousing from time to time only to such activity as would procure him
sustenance for the moment, then falling back into a dreamy lack of
thought that lasted only so long as the pangs of hunger were allayed.
He was differentiated from the brute by the fact that he did recognize
somewhat supernal in nature, something other and more spiritual than
himself, whose slave he was ; and he did have some store of tradition,
which by crude characters or by word of mouth he could communicate
to his children. From many mixed motives our ancestors put them-
selves at once in a helpful attitude toward these Indians ; as sitting in
the outer darkness of heathendom, they were proper receptacles of
religious light ; as beings prone to steal, unacquainted with truth, and
not unskilful in murder, they were to be brought under the restraining
influence of English law. So it happened that as early as 1643, Ciit-
shumache and four chiefs of neighboring tribes were induced to put
themselves, their subjects, their lands and estates, without any constraint
or persuasion, under the government and jurisdiction of the Massa
chusetts ; in the same instrument they promised to be true and faithful
to the government, to give speedy notice of any conspiracy against it,
and they expressed their entire willingness to be instructed in the
knowledge and worship of God. The pious Eliot soon began his
labors among them, and the result was that by 1670 numerous bodies of
JO ANDOVKR, MASSACHUSETTS
them had been collected into communities of " praying Indians," as at
Natick or Wamesit, while still others as " converted Indians " became
farm laborers and were instructed in useful civilized arts. But still
from the first the settler looked upon the Indian with suspicion, and
felt that he must be armed and equipped against any ebuUition of
Indian caprice. Hence it is that even our early Andover community
had its body of armed soldiers ; indeed every citizen was a soldier,
bound as much to protect the commonweal as to support his own
For a time all things are fair ; Massasoit and his older son.
Alexander, live in peace with New PK-mouth. But when they pass
from the scene, Philip, the younger son, becomes sachem. Nature
has given him a lithe and supple frame and immense endurance ; his
experience has filled his mind with an implacable hatred of the Eng-
lish ; he is the genius of Indian discontent and perfidy ; he conspires ;
he treats ; he breaks his compacts, and finally, to the dismay of every
pale face, he unites in league with him all the red men of New Eng-
land : fleet as the wind but noiselessly as a zephyr, messengers run
from tribe to tribe ; beacon fires blaze from hill to hill, and the whole
country is in terror. A regiment is raised to meet the hostile bands
that are gathering in the distant settlements. Twelve citizens of
Andover are in the forces that meet and defeat Philip in the great
fight at Pettysquamscot, December i8th, 1672. Philip is in hiding all
the winter, but with the return of spring he again emerges, and the
swift current of destruction sweeps eastward with ever increasing
forces. Northampton, Springfield, Brookfield, Lancaster, Marlbor-
ough, Groton and Chelmsford, all sufifer. Day by day Andover awaits
her turn, and finally, on the 8th of April, the approach of the Indians
is noticed by Ephraim Stevens ; he at once rides back to town to
warn the inhabitants, with the Indians in close pursuit ; without dis-
turbing other settlers, the red men hasten to the house of George
Abbott in the fields opposite this church ; Joseph Abbott, son of
George, is killed at his work, and Timothy, another son, a lad of
thireeen, is taken prisoner. The town is now thoroughly aroused and
every reasonable measure for defence is taken. Garrison houses
are erected here and there, and, by order of the general court (May
3, 1676), Andover, Chelmsford, and four other border settlements, are
created frontier towns. This vote allowed the soldiers of Andover
250TH ANNIVERSARY .- 7 1
who were in the service elsewhere, to return and go on duty in the
town, and this increase in the military force for a time frightened
away the savages.
As compared with other settlements Andover suffered but
little in this war ; besides the melancholy death of Abbott, some
few buildings were burned, some cattle killed or tortured. King
Philip met his death in August, 1676, and with him went out the
hopes of his allies for further victories and hostilities for a time
ceased. But meagre as the losses by this first war may have been,
who shall tell the anxieties of those few months ? with what fore-
bodings of pending evil the housewife did her daily tasks, working
alike in the house and field, while her husband was on duty in the
war ? how tenderly she pressed her babes to her bosom at night, for
fear that the morrow might bring who could tell what dangers and
distress ? Who can adequately say what passed within the yeoman's
mind, as, looking upon his growing crops, and the few poor buildings
that housed his family and stores, he thought of the dangers that
lurked in the forest, or that dogged his footsteps as he went forth to
The wars between France and England that began in 1688 and
did not end until 1 761, furnish a record of bitter strife. In spite of
occasional treaties, the hostility of France to England never slum-
bered ; but on the continent it called forth the marvelous generalship
of Marlborough that added imperishable glory to the English arms,
while in the colonies the period ends with the luminous figure of
Wolfe, dying in the full tide of victory on the Heights of Abraham,
an intrepid commander who softened the harsh outlines of a soldier's
life with the meditations of a scholar, and a sweet human tenderness
that might well have sprung from the bosom of a Sydney; and
out of the din and clangor of these wars, there arose above the
horizon one star of steady aspect and promising beauty, that was
destined to take its majestic course to the zenith, and, as George
Washington, to shine without its fellow in the firmanent. In politics
it gave to England the great names of Walpole and Burke, and the full-
orbed radiance of Pitt ; while who can tell what influences operating
in the colonies produced those serious reflections, that afterwards
reached their perfect expression in the Declaration of Independence .'
And the experiences of the colonists in these wars were like dragon's
72 ANCOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
teeth, that, sown in the ground, sprang up a race of warriors ready
armed and equipped for the contest in 1775.
It was a part of the French plan of campaign to court alliances
with the Indians and to encourage in their minds hostility to the
English ; and, supplied as the Indians were with guns and rum and
ammunition by the French, they became a formidable enemy to
colonial progress. In all these wars Andover and her citizens were
involved. In 1689 John Peters and Andrew Peters were killed on
the way to Haverhill, and in the same year four other citizens died in
the war that was waging in the eastern counties. In 1698 the
Indians eluded the watch, and, making a descent upon the town,
burned some houses and took away the town records ; they also killed
Pascoe Chubb and his wife and three other persons. Chubb had in
1693 assembled at Fort Pemaquid a council of Indians, in order to
arrange for an exchange of prisoners ; he had taken care to have the
Indians well supplied with liquor, and at a signal given by him, the
English in the council began a massacre of the Indians, and killed
several of them. This unfair act justly incensed the Indians against
him, and, together with the French, they beseiged the fort, and
threatened to torture the commander unless he surrendered : after
securing his own personal safety Chubb gave up the fort. For this
act of cowardly incompetence he was imprisoned for a time in the jail
at Boston, and finally, on his own petition, he was released and allowed
to go to take up his residence in Andover; and here he was in hiding
at the time of the Indian outbreak ; with savage delight the red men
killed both him and his wife, satisfying thus a desire alike to shed the
pale-face blood and to take vengeance on a treacherous enemy.
Plutchinson relates that at this same attack also they captured
Col. Bradstreet and his family, and that, after taking them from the
house for a distance, the Indians finally released them from fear of
being pursued by a superior force.
The frequency of these attacks, and the general fear of further
outbreaks, led to great activity among the citizens ; some of them
were busied on picket duty ; others were at the blockhouses, while
still others were engaged in building additional defences at Deer
Jump and Peters' Landing ; four block houses were built near the
Merrimac in 1704, and another was set up in Shawshin fields. This
activity on the part of the citizens resulted in a decrease of Indian
250TH ANNIVERSARY 73
attacks, and nothing of a serious nature occured after 1698. The
Indians withdrew gradually towards the lands of their French allies,
and the colonists as time wore away carried active war into the
countries of the Indians.
It was in one of these expeditions into the Indian country
that Jonathan Frye, a citizen of Andover and a student in theology,
who had not yet reached his majority, covered his name with
praise. Bound by an engagement of marriage to a girl whom his
parents did not approve, he had, in order to overcome his grief and
chagrin, joined Capt. Benj. Stevens's company to go to Lake Winnipe-
saukee to find the hiding places of the Indians. The company to
which he belonged took part in Lovewell's fight on the shore of Saco
Pond on the 24th of September, 1725. The Indians attacked the
camp while the English were at their dovotions, and Frye, who, as
chaplain, was conducting the service, at once began to fight, and,
according to the record, he and another scalped the first Indian that
was slain ; and he kept up the contest until the middle of the after-
noon, when he fell severely wounded ; unable any longer now to fight,
he encouraged his comrades by his loud intercession to the God of
armies for their preservation and success. As day declined, all his
hopes were realized, and his prayers answered ; the savages gave up
the fight and withdrew. The soldiers than began to march back to
their camp ; for some miles Frye, aided by two comrades, was able,
though in dreadful pain, to make his way ; but finally with a sublime
resignation, he begged his friends to save themselves and to leave him
to his fate, and, lying down upon the ground, he told them he should
never rise again. Soon after the friends withdrew reluctantly from
him, charged with tender messages to his father expressing his hope
in the future life and his fearlessness in the near presence of death.
" Whereupon," as the reverened chronicler relates,^ " they left him ;
and this Hopeful Gentleman, Mr. Frie, who had the Journal of the
March in his pocket, has not been heard of since." But the sweet
and touching pathos of his fate would not allow his name to fall into
oblivion ; and the story of his suffering and death is embalmed in
many a conceit of our colonial muse, while there seems no doubt that
the melancholy tale is depicted in the Roger Malvin's Burial of Haw-
^ Rev. Thomas Synunes.
74 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
The cessation of Indian hostilities about the town enabled the
citizens to devote themselves to their peaceful agriculture and manu-
factures ; the population grew apace, and a large measure of prosperity
was enjoyed. But the mother country was watchful of everything
relating to the colonies, and, accordingly, when Pitt began to resist
the claim of France to all that country which is now included in
Canada and the region west of the Alleghanies, he naturally called
upon the colonies for aid. And so it was that men of Andover fought
in the reduction of Cape Breton. Sixteen of them met their death at
the capture of Louisburg in 1745, ^^ ^^ consequence of exposure
there, and the faithful record of their names in the town's list of
deaths in the king's service is perhaps honor enough. It was in this
war that Joseph Fry and James Fry, citizens of Andover, entered upon
their successful careers. Later, the troops were ordered to reduce
Nova Scotia, Here too their efforts were successful, and her inhabi-
tants were driven out of their sweet and cheerful Acadia, some, like
Evangeline, to escape to distant countries, while still others, taken
prisoners, were quartered about the towns of New England. Twenty-
two or more of these fell to Andover, and their support was a matter
that the town regulated at its town-meetings, voting for the French
such supplies as a not over generous charity dictated. ^
While some of the men of Andover were reducing Nova Scotia
in 1755, others were engaged about Lake George, and in this expedi-
tion five of them met their deaths, and in all the contests that took
place between 1755 and 1760, with the exception of the battles of Fort
Duquesne and Quebec, they were present and contributed to the final
success of the Enghsh side. Joseph Frye took his part in the reduc-
tion of Nova Scotia, and later we find him dissenting from the capitu-
lation of Fort William Henry ; and it was when returning as a prisoner
of war, after the capitulation, that he was dragged into the woods by
his Indian guard, and stripped of his clothes ; and just as the Indian
was on the point of murdering him, Frye put forth a superhuman
strength, and, killing the savage, escaped. Almost without clothes,
he wandered for three days or more, and, with nothing but berries to
1 The first mention of these supplies is in the selectmen's records November 14, 1758,
where we find Major Osgood is allowed six shillings for two loads of wood "for ye french,"
and two days later Moody Bridges gets one shilling for 1/4 bushel of beans. Further sup-
plies are granted in 1759 and 1760, and, finally, in the fall of 1760, many of the Acadians
are removed to Springfield.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 75
eat, finally found his way back to Fort Edward. At Crown Point he
also did a hero's work. His record throughout the war is most credit-
able ; nowhere is he lacking in bravery ; nowhere can there be found
anything else than the highest loyalty to the crown, and the most
tender solicitude for his men.
In her conduct toward the Colonies, England had been true to
her traditional policy ; in their helpless infancy she had let them
resolutely alone ; but as they increased in numbers and wealth, their
value as a tributary became obvious to her ; hence she took away their
charter in 1686, and later when she needed additional soldiers, she
impressed the colonists into her service, and finally when she needed
more revenue, she ruthlessly taxed them. It was this attempt that
raised the mighty protest that resulted in our Revolution, and no-
where more vigorously than in Andover was this proposition combated,
nowhere was there a clearer view of the rights and duties of the
colonists. As we approach this period in the town's records, the page
suddenly leaps from the commonplace and the dull ; the handwriting
is better, and the spelling and grammar improve ; there is an appear-
ance of clear ideas and definite convictions. Up to this time there
had indeed been contests, but they were for the protection of the
home, or for the safeguard and aggrandizement of England. Today a
principle is involved that is the legitimate product of one hundred
and twenty-five years of colonial thought and experience, and out of
the trials and perplexities of the French and Indian wars, there has
sprung up a race of warriors fired by that fine new spirit of patriotism,
that was to stimulate and cheer them through manifold trials until
they reached a complete independence.
The history of Andover in the Revolution might well be written
out of the records of her town meetings. In October, 1763, there
were passed unanimously instructions to Samuel Phillips, then the
representative in the general court, that he is not to give his assent
to any act by which internal taxes are imposed in any other way than
by the general court. Here is a complete denial of the claim of
England to tax her colonies against their will, and the American
case could not be better stated. But the taxes were imposed, and in
May, 1768, a committee of seven citizens that had been appointed to
devise some measure of relief, report that the citizens should endeavor
by precept and example to suppress extravagance, idleness and vice,
-]6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
and promote industry, economy and good morals, and •' by all prudent
means endeavor to discountenance the Importation and use of Foreign
Superfluities and to promote and Incourage Manufactures in the
Town." The opposition to England did not always run in the peace-
ful channels of legislative enactments ; but of all conduct involving a
breach of the peace, the citizens of Andover express their " utter
detestation and abhorrence, and they call upon the selectmen, the
militia and the magistrates to use their utmost Endeavors agreeable
to Law to Suppress the same^;" Mr. Phillips is instructed ^ also to
" use his best endeavors in conjunction with other members of the
General Court to suppress all riotous unlawful assemblies and to pre-
vent all acts of violence upon the persons and substance of his ma-
jesty's subjects in this province."
The passage of the act imposing a tax on tea, iron, glass and salt,
aroused a violent protest, and at once the citizens meet and agree
that they will not import any of the articles taxed, and that they will
not make any use of foreign tea or coffee, or suffer it to be used in
their families.^ The days now are full of opposition to the home
government. In February, 1774, the Philadelphia Resolves are
adopted as the full sentiment of the town ; meanwhile, the old flint
locks that have been slumbering since 1761 are put into condition for
immediate use ; military companies are forming, and everywhere in
the horizon the clouds are lowering, which must soon break in fury
over the heads of the English authorities. Ten town meetings are
held in the year 1774 ; June 29th it is voted to take an inventory of
the ammunition belonging to the town, and if found insufficient, steps
.are to be taken to increase it as the law directs.* Moody Bridges, the
representative to the general court, is instructed to join with his
fellow members, if they deem it expedient or necessary, " in resolving
themselves into a Provincial Congress " ; and as subjects who still wish
well for their master, the vote adds as the reason, " in order to consult
and determine on such Measures, as they judge will tend to promote
the true Interest of his Majesty and the Peace, Welfare and Prosperity
of this Province."
But strong as the desire may be to have the king and his
ministers put themselves into a right position toward the colonies,
1 September II, 1765. * May 21, 1770.
•October 21, 1763. *September 15, 1774.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 77
the tide of events is ever rushing in the inevitable direction.
November 14, 1774, it is voted as expedient that the military com-
panies meet half a day each week for training and instruction ;
December 26, 1774, the town accepts every article and clause of the
resolve of the Continental Congress requesting the non-importation,
non-exportation, and non-consumption of British goods, and the
citizens in town-meeting assembled vote that if any person of twenty-
one years of age and upwards shall neglect to sign the non-importation
agreement, he shall be cut off from all commercial intercourse so long
as he shall continue thus inimical to the public good, and his name
shall be published in the "Essex Gazette" as an enemy to his coun-
try ; provisions also are adopted for the enrollment and compensation
of the militia; January 2, 1775, a committee of sixteen is appointed
to act as a Committee of Safety, who, by their life and conversation
are to use all their influence to suppress mobs and riots, and to en-
deavor to bring about that reformation in life and manners " so much
to be wished for and earnestly supplicated by all good men ; " February
13, 1775, it is voted that the constables pay over all the provincial tax
they may have collected to the provincial treasurer, and a committee
is appointed to give all needful aid to the constables in their work ;
and, as evidence of a stronger determination, all enlisted soldiers are
to be provided with bayonets, and a committee is appointed to collect
all bayonets that may be in the town ; March 20, 1775, a committee is
chosen to see that the non-importation agreement is carried out to the
letter ; to secure the greatest possible improvement in the breed of
sheep and to increase the herds ; to inculcate the utmost frugality in
all kinds of expenditure ; to see that no other mourning for the
dead be used than a black crape or ribbon on the arm or hat for men
and a black ribbon or necklace for women ; that no trader shall increase
the price of his wares ; that all traders shall take an inventory of their
goods, and after October 10 shall not expose for sale any of the pro-
scribed British goods upon penalty of the publication of their names
that they " meet with the merits of enemies to their country ; " and
the committee shall inspect the conduct of every person in the town,
and, upon finding any violating the articles of association, shall publish
their names in the '• Gazette," " to the end that all such foes to the
rights of British America may be publicly known."
Meanwhile, to give effect to these votes, arms, powder, uniforms
78 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
and all the accoutrements of war were being gathered from every
quarter ; four hundred men were in training, and it was out of these
that the first companies were formed in February, 1775. Capt-
Benjamin Farnum commanded fifty-four men of the North Parish, and
Capt. Benjamin Ames fifty men of the South Parish, and both com-
panies were attached to the regiment of Col. James Frye, and as
minute men were eagerly watching for any summons that might come
from Boston. Besides these two companies there were two hundred
and twenty-three officers and men in the militia, not attached to any
regiment, who also awaited a signal for action. The days in April —
that wonderful April of 1775, when the whole country seemed to have
been touched by the breath of June — pass too slowly by ; from day to
day the citizen soldiery goes to its task in the field armed as if going
to war, ready to start at a minute's notice ; the 19th April comes ; no
matter by whom or what the news is brought, whether by fleet
messengers galloping through the settlement, or by bell ringing out in
violent alarm, but tJie British are marching to seize the stores at
Concord. Instantly the minute man leaves his work, and falls into
line of march towards Concord and Lexington. Three hundred and
twenty-nine men of Andover go forth that day in the new cause of
armed resistance to oppression. They arrive at Lexington too late to
be of service, and accordingly they follow the retreating regulars back
as far as Cambridge.
Meanwhile the centre of interest is moving from Concord and
Cambridge towards Charlestown and Bunker Hill ; and finally June
17th dawns, and there at the top of the hill are the breastworks
that the ardor of the patriots has thrown up with consummate
diligence during the night, while the watch on board the English
men-of-war are stupidly announcing with the advancing hours the
" All's well," as if in unconscious prophecy of the great events that
were dawning with that auspicious morn. Three companies of
Andover men are at the battle ; and everywhere encouraging his
soldiers and showing the utmost coolness in the presence of danger is
Colonel James Frye ; engaged in other duties when the fight began,
with all speed he hastens to the scene of action ; on his way he
rebukes some companies halting by the wayside, and still rushing on
he declares : " This day thirty years I was at the taking of Louisburg.
This is a fortunate day for America, we shall certainly beat the enemy."
250TH ANNIVERSARY 79
His prophecy for that fight was futile, but it was proven true in the
final result. The women and children at home in Andover, and
the old men and the infirm, hear the heavy firing at Bunker Hill, and
with anxious hearts await results ; what son or husband or brother
might not go down in the awful but yet glorious struggle ? Anxiety
and alarm at first prevail ; then a woman's pity and charity leap to the
front, and bandages and lint, and household nostrums are prepared,
with all despatch to be sent for the benefit of the wounded. By good
fortune the fight was on Saturday, and on the following day many a
citizen of ihe town repaired to the camp to give relief to the suffering.
There was Rev. Dr. French, the preacher to the South Parish, capable
alike to minister physical and spiritual relief ; the Rev. David Osgood,
a man of sensitive nature who shrank from the horrors of war, but yet
was consumed with patriotic zeal ; Major Samuel Osgood who had
charge of the commissary ; Bimsley Stevens, the adjutant general ;
Samuel Phillips, senior, and Samuel Phillips, junior ; Samuel Johnson,
a colonel and the early recruiting officer of the region ; Major Thomas
Poor, who first entered the volunteer militia as a captain, and Colonel
Enoch Poor, who was destined ere the war closed to be advanced to
the rank of general, and to become the friend and companion of
Washington and Lafayette. All these claimed Andover as their
home and birthright, and today we recite their names in the roll of
her honored and patriotic children.
Shift the scenes of the war as they may, the same steady zeal
fires the patriots both at home and in the field. The minute
men are to be paid out of the town treasury.^ Everywhere there
is fear of an invasion of British soldiers or an uprising of Tory
sentiment. Watchmen are appointed to patrol the streets from
nine at night to an hour after sunlight ; travelers abroad at night
must tell their business ; if after being commanded to stop they
fail to do so, the sentinels may fire ; or if, indeed, they stop, but
refuse to answer, they must be taken before a magistrate for exam-
ination ; and if any person appointed to the watch refuse or neglect to
serve, he is to be deemed " as unfriendly to the good order and unity
of the town." 2 As time goes on there is no abatement of ardor, and
finally the first note of separation from the mother country appears on
1 Third Monday, May, 1775.
2 May 15 and 29, 1775.
8o ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
the town records. It is the meeting of June 12, 1776, and this is the
sole record :
" The question being put, whether should the Honble Congress for the safety
of the Colonies declare them Independent of the Kingdom of Great Britian, you will
solemnly engage with your Lives and Fortunes to support them in the measure, it
passed in the Affirmative unanimously."
The citizens of Andover had no doubt what would fill the
measure of their desire, and they wasted no words over it ; and
the town clerk of this same year (1776) had the good fortune to
copy at length into the town records within three weeks after this
vote the Declaration of Independence. This was the end of
British authority in the colonies, and for the first time the town
meeting to be held in March, 1777, is called "In the Name of the
Government and People of Massachusetts Bay ; " all warrants preced-
ing this had been issued in the name of the existing sovereign of Great
Time is not at hand to give in detail all the history of Andover
in the Revolution. From Lexington, through Valley Forge to York-
town, her sons are found ever conspicuous in the field ; her quota of
men is always full, and during the whole period of the war she sent
into the service over six hundred men. And these men were well
sustained in return by the town ; the families of non-commissioned
officers and privates are to be supplied with necessaries ; ^ every
soldier is to be provided with one pair of shirts, two pairs of stock-
ings, and one pair of shoes and a blanket ;^ ;£ 1,800 are voted to be
placed in the hands of the various officers commanding the companies
of militia to enable them to fulfil their contracts with the soldiers ; ^
every soldier engaged in the town's service is to receive twenty-five
bushels of Indian corn per month, or the amount of the circulating
medium that shall be equivalent to the price of the corn when the
>ame shall become due,* and finally as a bounty to be paid annually in
addition to every other encouragement, each soldier is to receive
linety-five Spanish dollars for each year he shall continue in the ser-
vice, and the town further votes to make up any depreciation in the
pay in continental money given by the general government to the
' November 18, 1777. * June 20, 1780.
* February 16, 1778. ' December 20, 1780.
• July I, 1779.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 8 I
As familiar as the story of the battles of the Revolution, is the
history of the decline in value of the circulating medium ; the paper
currency issued by the Continental Congress had not even belief or
confidence in the government to rest upon, and consequently each
issue of it only made it less valuable ; the result was a great decline
in its purchasing povirer ; ;£300 are voted for highways in 1778,
but in 1 78 1, ;;^20,ooo are voted for this purpose; in October,
1780, ^42,000 are voted to purchase the town's quota of beef
for the army, but by December 21, 1780, the amount voted for this
purpose reached the colossal sum of ^^78,748 ; while it is voted that
;^ 1 75,000 be raised to pay the wages of the men that had enlisted for
three and for six months. These last amounts represent the high
water mark of inflation, and December 24, 1781, the selectmen and
town treasurer are directed to liquidate all the outstanding indebted-
ness of the town on the basis of one dollar in specie for seventy-five
dollars in currency. This uncertainty in the value of the circulating
medium added immeasurably to the hardships of our ancestors in the
Revolution ; but, as every other difficulty in those times, it was met
and conquered, for, in 1782, the appropriations are back again to their
modest dimensions, and the country was once more on a specie basis ;
and there, so far as Andover had any influence, it would certainly
remain, for October 17, 1785, Andover votes with only two dissenting
votes as follows : —
" Whereas it has been said that a Neighboring Town has lately by a Public
Vote expressed a disposition for a paper Currency,
Voted, — That Joshua Holt Esqr- be and he is hereby instructed in case any
motion shall be made in the General Court introducing a Paper Medium rigorously
and perseveringly to oppose the same as being a measure in our Opinion to promote
Idleness, dissipation and dishonesty, and by destroying the Morals of the People to
bring on the ruin of the Commonwealth."
One hundred and eleven years have not lessened the truth here
expressed, and I suggest that this vote be amended by inserting after
the words " paper medium," the words " or silver," and that, so
amended, it be handsomely engraved and framed, and presented to the
Senate of the United States to be hung upon its walls, to the end that
it may teach that forgetful assemblage what a little inland town
regarded as rudimentary in 1785, and what uniform experience has
dictated, and what common sense and business integrity demand.
82 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
It is impossible within the limits assigned for this portion of your
exercises to do adequate justice to the record of Andover in the Revo-
lutionary struggle. It is a noble record of noble deeds. There in its
full development is the spirit of patriotism ; the capacity to do and to
sufifer, that enabled the citizen, whether at home or in the field, to do
valorous deeds or undergo sacrifice in behalf of his town and colony ;
there is the shrewd intelligence that directed all the movements of the
difficult struggle ; there is also the faith in the rectitude of their cause,
that, clothing them as it were in a religious armor, sent them forth
in the crusade for freedom and complete independence, determined on
To him who shall address the town on her three hundredth anni-
versary, I leave the pleasing duty of presenting the record of Andover
in the Civil War. That record has been compiled by a citizen of the
town with great care and research, and there it stands a possession for
all time, without ornament or illustration, telling its inspiring story of
fidelity to duty, of personal bravery and sacrifice. In the press of
topics that demand utterance on this occasion, this reference to Mr.
Raymond's admirable compilation should suffice, but, founded as this
address is upon the theory that in all her achievements Andover has
always been true to her puritan origin, I can but pause here to ask
how far the puritan element entered into the services she rendered to
the nation, when the authority of the government was defied by the
The wars of puritanism have always been founded on some exalted
principle in morals or politics. This is as true of the Revolution in
1775, as it was of that first great puritan war whose tragic event
was the death of Charles I. Contrast with these the wars of France
in the early years of the century ; they were fought only to further the
ambitious schemes of Bonaparte. The Six Weeks War in 1866 was
fought solely for the aggrandizement of Prussia, while the Franco-
German War of 1 87 1 had no other ground than the jealously of Na-
poleon III of the growing power of Germany. But the Civil War in
America was founded on the principle of human freedom, and it was
a battle for human rights. Our ancestors of the revolutionary
period spread out to the world in the Declaration of Independence
their fine generalities on the equality before the law of all men ; yet
there was scarcely one of the signers of that document that did not
25OTH ANNIVERSARY ' 83
maintain slaves in his own household, slaves vv^hom he doubtless
treated mercifully and regarded almost as members of his family, but
though human beings, these slaves were, in the eyes of the law, mere
chattels that could be bought and sold. This profession and practice
of freedom were strangely at variance with each other, but the custom
of slave-holding was thoroughly established, and the convenience of
the system was beyond question. But the moral law overrides the
conveniences of men, and when this noxious germ, gathering strength
and insolence out of the fetid soil where it throve, not content with
debasing to its service great intellects that had been consecrated to
freedom, sought to dictate terms to the national government, and
finally denied its authority, then high above the strife sounded the
dictates of the moral law, and eighty years of paltering compromise
were wiped out by a sacrifice of blood and treasure such as the world
had not seen before. It was a puritan triumph, won on puritan prin-
Never did the flag seem more precious than when the union it
symbolized was rent asunder ; never did love of country come laden
with a deeper sense of duty ; and nowhere more loyally than in Ando-
ver was there a response to every call that the great solemn man in
Washington made for troops. At once upon the firing on Fort Sum-
ter, a military company was formed, and when, in August, 1862, there
was a call for more men, and a draft seemed inevitable, at a special
town meeting Dr. Jackson proposed, and the citizens unanimously
voted, that the town should furnish volunteers rather than conscripts
to fill up its quota, and " would deem it a dishonor and a stain upon its
patriotism to send soldiers raised by conscription for the defense of
Liberty and the Union." Here is an exalted ideal of citizen duty, the
noblest utterance in the records of Andover. And at this town meet-
ing the sagacity of Benjamin F. Ward well, leaping from effect to
cause, proposed — and the town with but one dissenting vote ac-
cepted — a preamble declaring slavery to be the cause of the existing
insurrection, and a resolution calling upon the President to declare
without delay its abolition throughout the length and breadth of the
These resolutions sufficiently attest the spirit of Andover ; it is a
spirit full of the moral virtues of a puritan ancestry ; it is sagacity,
courage, fortitude and patriotism, and that nothing might be wanting
84 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
to fit the deed to the word, the action to the spirit, Andover raised
and sent forth to the service upwards of six hundred men. What
sacrifices they made ; what wounds and privations they bore ; what
forms of death ever imminent they gazed at ; what hope and love and
reverence for duty sustained them ; what chivalric deeds they wrought
for freedom and the Union, you \ sir, who saw the first blood shed at
Baltimore, and were still in the service when Lee surrendered at
Appomattox, and you, members of the Grand Army of the Republic,
know full well. The orator of 1946 will miss the inspiration of your
presence, but he will tell to ears unfamiliar with the story the full
detail of your duteous service to your town and country, and will pay
to your memory the tribute that a faithful allegiance to a good cause
must ever call forth. Let this thought cheer you as you soon go
forth to your pathetic floral service in memory of your comrades ;
and let it sustain you as, from time to time, involuntarily you draw a
little more closely together in your encampment hall, because another
companion has gone out to join the ranks beyond. And mothers and
fathers and widows of the soldiers of Andover, whose hearts still cry
out for your dead, remember that their names on the tablets in Memo-
rial Hall, which is also your public library, are moulding, with the
gentle discipline of letters, the minds of youth to higher conceptions
of duty, and mutely but not less surely are adding to the total of
human worth by all the wealth of that costly sacrifice.
Honorable and wholesome as has been the record of Andover,
there is no wish to claim for her in civil and military affairs any
eminence above her sister towns ; they were all of them steadfast
supporters of the system to which they gave their allegiance, and it is
honor enough ever to have been found with no halting step in that
distinguished companionship. But high as is Andover Hill above the
general level of the plain, so high above all the early settlements with
the exception of Cambridge, is the preeminence that Andover has
taken in educational matters. And so it is to the hill,
To yonder hill, in learning's fair demesne,
Fair as the shades where trode the wise Hellene,
that we must turn to find the true distinction of Andover.
Samuel Phillips, the third of the name in the direct line of
^ Major William Marland.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 85
descent, graduated from Harvard in 1771. He had been a diligent
student, and, early after his graduation, he turned his thoughts to the
establishment at Andover of a school where boys might be instructed
in the "great end and real business of living." His enthusiasm in
this work secured the co-operation of his father, Samuel Phillips, and
of his uncles John and William. Citizen as he was of the North
Parish, he naturally sought for a suitable location there ; but failing to
buy the high lands near where the Kittredge house since 1785 has
reared its stately colonial beauty, he purchased land on Andover Hill
that was thenceforth to be dedicated to sound learning and piety.
Upon the land thus bought there was a wooden building, one story in
height and thirty-five feet long by twenty feet in width; this he con-
verted from a carpenter's shop into a schoolhouse, and here was
started in 1778 that Free School which became in 1780, by enactment
of the general court, Phillips Academy. This school was the first in-
corporated academy in the country,^ and the same brain that conceived
its existence planned its course of study, without other guide than his
own good sense and cultivation. The social position of the Phillips
family assured to the school from the first a large and distinguished
patronage. Within six years after its incorporation, a larger building
was erected with accommodations for one hundred students. This
was also built by the Messrs. Phillips ; their benefactions to the school
were constant, and up to the year 1828 their gifts had reached the
very large sum of ^61,000.00. Other benefactions of upwards of
$400,000.00 have been received, and I am glad to enumerate among
them the gift of a dormitory by citizens of the town of Andover, given,
I hope, in grateful recognition of the distinction the Academy has
conferred upon the town.
Beginning as every early American institution has begun, with
prayerful interest and an humble hope for its success, yet conducted in
a manner that would make anything else than success impossible, this
Academy has expanded from a school of fifty-one pupils to its present
large proportions, to proportions that are limited only by lack of proper
facilities. In the one hundred and sixteen years of its existence there
have been registered over twelve thousand students, and among thero
are names of men eminent in every department of life. From Eliphalet
Pearson to the present incumbent, the principalship has been held by
'Dummer Academy, Byfield, was established in 1763 but not incorporated until 1782.
86 AN1)0VER, MASSACHUSETTS
men of high scholarship and character, whose lives have illustrated the
excellence of that learning they were set to teach, and who have worthily
maintained the high christian standard of profession and practice that
Samuel Phillips prescribed. Who that recalls the robust manhood and
mental acumen of Dr. Samuel H. Taylor, can doubt what a benedic-
tion and inspiration he was to every boy who came under his influence,
or can say that the school that provides teachers of his manful stature
is not accomplishing a great work for humanity .'' and recalling how
many students there are each year in this school who, without means
or social advantages, work their way to an education, winning high
distinction with the faculty and the fond love and respect of their
schoolmates, who shall estimate what the school indirectly is teaching
of that wholesome democracy that overlooks social distinctions and
fixes its gaze on merit alone ?
Fellow citizens, the existence of the Academy among you is
today your chief honor and glory. I pass as too obvious for comment
its commercial value to many interests in the town, and viewing it
only in its human aspect, I will ask you for a moment to reflect what
parental loves, what glowing aspirations, what rich memories gather
here ; consider also to how many a former student the mention of
Andover recalls the fading images of his schoolboy days. There, in
the dimming vista of the years, is the long street with its ample shade ;
the hill with its arching elms ; the broad sweep of land and sky ; the
resplendent sunset ; the campus filled with boys in the full flush of
youthful exuberance ; and there in the midst of the picture, the radiant
centre of it all, is the building ablaze with the setting sun ; and
perhaps as his thoughts take on a deeper hue, he hears the bell once
more summoning him to his round of duties, and his thoughts go forth
to some faithful and noble instructor whose words have been a guide
to him in his activities, and once more perhaps his heart thrills anew
as he recalls the confidence and love with which he went among his
friends in the days when there were no concealments, and before the
competitions and sinuosities of life had chilled his honest boyhood
zest. Life is blessed in proportion as it is filled with tender memories.
This is what the Academy means on its human side ; and in this
aspect Andover, as its home, becomes almost a sacred spot, a place
dedicated not merely to letters and the arts, but to the unfolding and
strengthening of the highest human amenities.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 87
Samuel Phillips did not intend that his work should cease with
the establishment of the Academy. On a loose leaf in one of the
earliest drafts of its constitution, there was found in his own hand-
writing a plan by which a course in theological instruction was to be
given to the students, and, in accordance with this plan, about twenty
candidates were instructed for the ministry before the foundation of
the Seminary. There seems to be no doubt, moreover, that Mr.
Phillips intended to found a distinct theological school, but his decease
at the age of fifty prevented the completion of his plans, and the work
was carried out later by his distinguished relict, Phoebe Foxcroft
Phillips, and his son John.
In 1806 it became evident that Harvard College had gone over to
Unitarianism. This fact filled the Calvinists of New England with
dismay, and it became imperative that there should be founded at
once some institution to stem the ever rising tide of radicalism. At
this same time it happened that there were two distinct schools of
Calvinists in New England between whom there were some differences
of opinion, but differences of not an essentially vital character. Dr.
Spring of Newburyport, as the leader of one school, induced certain
wealthy merchants in his own congregation to entertain the design of
founding a theological institution at Newbury, The Trustees of Phil-
lips Academy who represented the other school, had in 1807 secured
an act of legislation by which they might receive and hold donations
for the purpose of a theological institution. In view of the alleged de-
fection of Harvard College, two seminaries would have weakened the
whole movement for an improved system of theological study, and,
accordingly, through the happy mediation and untiring activity of
Eliphalet Pearson, who resigned his offices of Professor and Fellow at
Harvard in 1806, a reconciliation was produced between the two
schools, which resulted finally in a compromise creed and the foun-
dation of the seminary at Andover. Madame Phillips and her son
contributed $20,000 to build Phillips Hall and a steward's house. Mr.
Samuel Abbott of Andover founded a professorship, and for that pur-
pose donated $110,000, while Messrs. William Bartlett and Moses
Brown of Newburyport and Johh Norris of Salem contributed in all
5235,000. The Seminary entered upon its work in October, 1808,
with thirty-six students. In its eighty-eight years there have been
donations amounting to upwards of $1,300,000; over three thousand
88 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
two hundred students have been registered, and of these over two
hundred have entered the foreign missionary field.
It is not within mortal power to estimate how wide-reaching and
how beneficent has been the influence of this school ; it has carried the
name of Andover to whatever remote field the missionary endeavor has
extended, while throughout the land it has made Andover and sound
doctrine, though perhaps not with unvarying unanimity, synonomous
terms. It has given to the town the distinguished citizenship of such
men as Dr. Porter, Leonard Woods, Professors Stuart and Phelps,
while here lived and wrote Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose husband,
Calvin E. Stowe, was a professor in the Seminary, and through this
school there has been linked in inseparable union with the name of
Andover the far shining genius of Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward.
But while congratulating ourselves on the presence among us today,
as well as in the past, of the distinguished professors connected with
the Seminary, I am sure I express the uniform sentiment of the
citizens in assuring you, sir,^ who, in your eighty-eighth year, dignify
this occasion with your presence, how much we respect and love you
for the manly and genial qualities you have shown as neighbor, citizen
and friend, and how profoundly we admire the broad learning and in-
tellectual force that for an half century have made you an eminent
teacher and the conspicuous leader of Congregational thought. In
your late afternoon of life it is not for us to wish you a length of days
beyond the time when life ceases to be gladsome and agreeable, but
may your portion be peace and rest, the peace and rest of eventide.
In 1828 discussion arose about the establishment of a private
school for girls that should be on the same denominational basis as
Phillips Academy. Prominent citizens began to agitate the question,
and soon, as had been the case in all other good works in Andover, a
person having a residence in the town bequeathed $10,000 toward the
endowment of a school and $1000 toward the erection of a building.
An act of incorporation was procured in February, 1829, and in May,
1829, Abbot Academy opened with seventy students. The generous
friend of the school was Madam Sarah Abbot, widow of Nehemiah
Abbot, and though herself without special education, she enjoys the
distinction of having founded the first school for girls in this section
of the country. This academy has instructed over four thousand
* Professor Edwards A. Park.
250TH ANNIVERSARY 89
Students, and thanks to the energy of its trustees, its prospects were
never better ; with enlarged buildings and beautified grounds it pre-
sents in its physical aspects many attractive elements, while as a
fitting school for college, or as a finishing school, its rank is high and
its management conservative and successful. Benefactions of con-
siderable value have been made to the school, and I regret that I may
not mention by name here one friend of Abbot, whose donations, the
result of economy and thrift, have been numerous and valuable, and
to whose well earned leisure, in the decline of life, the care of its
property and estate affords agreeable recreation, and a purely unselfish
delight.^ Would that friends of similar measure might spring up to
all our institutions. But as valuable to Abbot as many legacies, is
the memory of Miss Phoebe McKeen, so long associated with her
sister in the management of the school, a memory of sweet intel-
lectual and spiritual graces that send forth their choice perfume long
after the flower that gave them forth has faded away.
One other act of conspicuous benevolence illustrates the educa-
tional history of Andover. Born in Salem in 1799, Benjamin
Punchard lived there till 1827, when, with strength impaired and with
a desire to locate in a healthful community, he selected Andover as
his home ; by activity and thrift he had at the age of twenty-eight
acquired considerable property ; on his settlement here he entered
into a general merchandise business with John Derby, and later marry-
ing a daughter of Abraham Marland he became a member of the
Marland Manufacturing Co., and his acquisition of considerable wealth
was immediate. Dying at the age of fifty-one, he left a bequest of
^50,000 dollars to found a free high school in Andover ; of this
amount ;^io,ooo were immediately available for the erection of a
building, and the balance of ;^40,ooo was to be kept for the mainten-
ance of the school ; the will further created a reversionary interest in
^20,000 more, which was to be paid over on the death of his wife.
The school building was dedicated in 1856, and thus through the
generosity of one who had adopted the town as his home, Andover
was provided with a school for the higher education of her children.
Accurate details of the total wealth of Mr. Punchard are not at hand,
but his gift to the town may be taken as fully one-third of his estate.
' Warren F. Draper, the full record of whose gifts to Abbot Academy was announced
at the graduating exercises June 28, 1896, after this address had been delivered.
90 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
In 1850 the great fortunes that now make America conspicuous for
wealth had not come into being, and this fact throws into brighter
light Mr. Puncbard's benevolence. His gift easily takes rank as the
largest in amount and most useful in scope that the town has ever
received. Its obvious results are the general diffusion of a higher
intelligence among the citizens, and the presence in the community of
a body of graduates and past members of the school, interested in
maintaining its dignity and good repute, and cherishing with unvary-
ing loyalty its fast growing traditions.
Time fails me to do more than suggest the ceaseless benefactions
with which the annals of your churches teem, but next to Mr. Pun-
chard's gift must be named as scarcely less inferior in their public
utility, that collection of gifts whose object was the foundation at
once of a public Hbrary and the erection of a perpetual memorial to
the soldiers. This idea originated in the broad mind of Mr. John
Smith, who generously donated $33,000 to the purpose, while his
partners, Messrs. Peter Smith and John Dove, gave $12,000 ; contri-
butions from other sources amounting to $17,000 more enabled the
trustees to build the building as it now stands and to equip the
And here the narration of munificent deeds must close. Their
grand total might be computed, and the amount of it would compel
admiration ; but who shall estimate the results of this benevolence .-*
Who shall say how much our human nature has been enriched and
ennobled by this unselfish generosity ? And recalling that it was by
citizens of Andover that these beneficent enterprises were first under-
taken, shall we not say of these citizens that they are the true offspring
and successors of those Puritans who in 1636 set up the college at
Cambridge, and who in 1647 decreed the existence of schools in the
various settlements, in order, as they expressed it, that sound learning
might not be buried in the graves of their forefathers } To com-
memorate such works as these gives significance to this glad festival ;
and we celebrate today not merely the land or the mill stream whence
men for a quarter millenium have drawn an existence, but Andover,
the home and choice desire of those who have dignified humanity by
their charity, and who shine in bright light the guardians and pro-
tectors of the human race.
Other triumphs of peace have kept an even pace with the achieve-
250TH ANNIVERSARY 9!
ments of Andover in education. The manufacturing interests began
naturally with a saw mill and grist mill ; then to these were added a
fulling mill and iron mill, industries that the nascent town demanded
to satisfy its immediate wants and comforts ; in the time of the Revo-
lution Samuel Phillips turned his manifold energies to the manufacture
of gunpowder ; and when the war was over, and the spears had been
beaten into pruning hooks, the same energy that made material for
war was engaged in the production of paper. Later the powers of
nature were turned to a broader use, and the names of Marland,
Abbott, Bradlee, Smith, Sutton, Saunders, Hodges, Davis and Stevens,
became connected with manufacturing enterprises that have added
greatly to the wealth and reputation of the town.
In agriculture too Andover has gained a high place. Interjected
as the only fertile spot between the sands of the Merrimac and the
swamps of the Ipswich, her soil presents high possibilities of reward
for agricultural effort intelligently bestowed, and under it the forest
that sighed to forest in endless succession, has been cleared away,
and, spread out to sun and sky, lie hills and intervale that yield due
products to the farmer, or lend themselves with gracious willingness
to the adornment of private estates.
Fellow citizens, the Andover we love and cherish today, the
Andover whose record we approve, is only the product of the charac-
ter of those who have been her citizens ; and now on this day, when
the town comes to give some account of herself to the world, she bids
me to propose for distinguished honor the names of some of those
strong men and women who have given lustre and character to every
page of her history. Here and there have been mentioned in the
course of this address, the names of some whose relation to the facts
narrated was so pivotal that their place in local history is secure ; for
most of them that mention must suffice. But how under this sum-
mons can I fail to name Simon Bradstreet, a member of the Court of
Assistants and afterwards Governor of the Province, whose house still
stands in North Andover ? Anne Bradstreet his wife, the first
colonial poetess, the prototype of the New England wife and mother ;
honored in their lives, and destined in the lapse of time to get new
lustre from Wendell Holmes, Wendell Phillips, Ellery Channing and
R. H. Dana, their descendants.
John Osgood, the first representative in the general court, and
92 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
the progenitor of a distinguished race ; among whom it will suffice
to name Samuel Osgood, the first postmaster general, and Gayton
P. Osgood, a scholar and a member of congress, whose houses still
are standing in the North Parish, and near which the mansion on
Osgood Hill rears its splendid front as if to reflect the lustre of the
John Stevens, a man of great usefulness in the management
of town affairs, and the progenitor of a hardy race distinguished
as manufacturers, mechanics, and engineers, the type of whom is
best represented by Capt. Nathaniel Stevens, so well remembered
among the older inhabitants of the town ; and among the eminent
members of this family must be mentioned Major General Isaac I.
Stevens, one time Governor of Washington Territory, who met his
death on the field of Chantilly in September, 1862, while bravely
leading the charge against the rebel forces.
George Abbott, the ancestor of a numerous progeny of clergymen
and of men and women in every vocation of life, who have rendered
useful services throughout the whole history of the town.
John Lovejoy, the ancestor of General Nathaniel Lovejoy, a
distinguished officer in the Revolution.
Andrew Foster, who in 1685 died at the age of one hundred and
six years, and who numbers among his descendants, bankers, judges,
and men skilled in the administration of civic affairs.
Colonel Moody Bridges, the ardent patriot of the Revolution,
and a delegate to the Provincial Congress.
Samuel Bailey, who lost his life at Bunker Hill, and whose de-
scendant, Sarah Loring Bailey, in her careful and judicious "Historical
Sketches of Andover," has rendered invaluable service to the town.
John Johnson, among whose descendants may be named the
Rev. Samuel Johnson, a writer of hymns of exalted purity, and the
author of an exhaustive treatise on " Comparative Religions ; " Dr.
Samuel Johnson, who for thirty consecutive years was the conscien-
tious town clerk of Andover, and whose services received the gracious
recognition of his fellow citizens ; William and James Johnson, honor-
able and prosperous merchants ; Theron Johnson, the founder of the
Johnson High School ; Osgood Johnson, the fifth principal of Phillips
Andrew Peters, the founder of a family of the highest respect-
250TH ANNIVERSARY ' 93
The doctors of the name of Kittredge, who through four gener-
ations practised medicine and pursued agriculture with like good sense
and success, and were men of capacity and influence in town, state
Francis Dane, Thomas Barnard, John Barnard and William
Symmes, four successive preachers to the First Church, whose
ministry extended from 1648 to 1807, a period of one hundred and
fifty-nine years ; they were succeeded in 18 10 by Bailey Loring, who
served the parish for forty years, and whose honeyed eloquence was
inherited by his son, George B. Loring, a gracious and forceful orator.
Simeon Putnam, the eminent preceptor of Franklin Academy ;
Francis Cogswell, Mark Newman, Samuel Farrar, George Hodges,
types of trustworthy citizenship. Samuel Merrill, Nathan W. Hazen,
practitioners at the bar and fine exemplars of the manners of an earlier
day. Marcus Morton, a judge of the Superior Court, a judge and
chief justice of the Supreme Court, for thirty-two years in the
judicial service of the Commonwealth, learned in the law, and emi-
nently sensible in the application and statement of it.
Abraham Marland, Peter Smith, John Dove, George L. Davis,
successful manufacturers, munificent contributors to many useful
works ; men whose lives illustrate the value of self-help and unweary-
ing industry ; and as most eminent in this class I speak with reverent
regard the name of John Smith, the record of whose life, character
and manifold benevolences might well have taken the whole time of
But I should be recreant to my trust were I not to name for
especial honor here the Phillips family, that in every generation has
conferred distinction upon the town. In the year 171 1, Samuel Phil-
lips, the first minister of this church, entered upon a pastorate that was
not to close until 1771 ; a gentleman by birth and nature, a scholar,
a man of profound piety, and of serious and solid character ; in the
second generation, his sons Samuel, John and William, became the
founders of the Academy, and were men of enterprise, patriotic and
devoted to every good work ; and John Phillips further illustrated the
family habit of philanthropy by founding and endowing, in 1783, the
academy at Exeter : in the third generation, Samuel, son of Samuel,
conceived the idea of that academy which his father and uncles
founded, and was a man of business sagacity and of manifold
94 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
commercial enterprises, a judge, a state senator and the Lieutenant
Governor of the Commonwealth : in the fourth generation, John, the
son of Samuel, with his mother, Phoebe Foxcroft Phillips, was of those
who founded the Theological Seminary ; in the fifth generation, the
reputation of the family for piety and philanthropy was worthily main-
tained by those excellent ladies whose names were household words to
every citizen of the North Parish : in the sixth generation, the glory
of the race was concentrated in Phillips Brooks, the Bishop of
Massachusetts. He was the apostle and advocate of human excel-
lence, and his election to the head of the diocese crowned with the
meed of eminent merit a life devoted to the spiritual welfare of
In manhood clad outshining far the guise,
Mitre, and crook and gilt-enfigured gown,
Wherewith Rome loves to load her prelates down,
And cincture them with pomp, — thou, humbly wise,
Assums't thy sacred charge ; nor dost devise
A labored liturgy, nor has a frown
For those who covet not the martyr's crown,
Nor those who e'en religion's sway despise.
The good, the true to love, and e'er in man
To stablish what is best, and him to raise
Up to the hight of Christ's and nature's plan
Thy fervent theme; and 'tis thy highest praise
That conscious pure stands ever in the van
Of all thy thoughts and creeds and forms outweighs.
No words of mine can add to the reverence you hold for his
exalted character ; but recalling the fervor of his address at the dedi-
cation of Memorial Hall, with the fine ancestral spirit full upon him,
I must ask what would not have been his eloquence, could he have
stood here in his proper place today to celebrate the foundation of
that Andover his ancestors had made of resplendent fame .''
Be these of the prime in honor and in worth, but far be it from
me here to forget that collective citizen virtue that has done its duty
in the fields or mills, and that has given solidity and strength to the
fabric that has here been reared ; and who that has known those
whose lives were love, patience, self-denial and fidelity to every duty,
shall doubt that the moral beauty of that fabric is directly traceable to
the influence of the mothers of Andover }
250TH ANNIVERSARY 95
Such, fellow citizens, in partial outline is Andover, and out of the
manifold delights of this hour, there rises to the vision, not a vener-
able matron virhose life is in the past, but a mother of maturing beauty,
confident of the future, regnant, imperial. In classic dignity, in the
repose of conscious worth, she sits upon her hill top, and as the
generations of her children and her students come to do her honor,
she rises up to meet them, and, pointing with becoming pride to the
band of men and women who surround her seat, she says : " These are
they of puritan mould, who felled my forests ; who fought my ene-
mies ; who founded my schools ; who gained my independence ; who
have made my name one with the blessed name of Freedom. What-
ever of sovereignity I have, I owe to them. If you would have nie
to abide with you, the bright flower of that puritan development from
which I had my origin, cultivate their virtues and their character, and
my reign among you will be secure."
96 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
BY ANNIE SAWYER DOWNS
To-day, the Hampshire fields are sweet with blossoms of the May ;
To-day, in ancient Hampshire woods, the deer and rabbit play ;
While Hampshire meads are smooth and rich, and shine with emerald gleam,
And haunted forests whisper low to each historic stream.
But towns and cities old and gray are Hampshire's pride and boast,
And that o'er all her grassy plains, the track of Roman host
Still leads to villa, and to camp, and to the Druid grove.
Whose mystic stones were altars hoar, ere Bacchus was, or Jove ;
Who silent saw the rise of Rome, and silent saw her fall.
And made no sign when axe of Dane crashed down the minster wall,
Or smote with all his savage horde, on shrine and chapel rare,
And drowned with ribald jest and oath the monkman's dying prayer.
The Druid stone, the Roman camp, the Norman abbey vast.
The good king's church, the wise king's school, all tell of Hampshire's past.
And of the proud and noble fame which through the years comes down
To flush the cheek, and thrill the hearts throughout our ancient town,
For our own Andover so old, and yet so young to-day,
Who ever to the mother land will loving homage pay.
To an old borough on the Ande is namesake, mental heir.
Which Saxon men called Andover in English Hampshire fair.
O, mother land, O, mother town, how oft thy shaded street
Has heard at dawn the bugle call, and then the trampling feet
Of men at arms, who for their king shrank not from toil or pain,
And for their right in church or state accounted death but gain.
Who in the cell, and on the block, by faggot, and by rack.
Laid straight a way through coming years for freedom's shining track.
O, mother land, O, mother town, when dark days on you fell.
And those you set in places high, for gold and gauds dared sell,
The freeman's right to name his faith, the freeman's right to pray,
To seek his God with hymn or psalm as seemed to him God's way.
The freeman's right to judge the Word, to teach his simple child
That secret true of holy life is Gospel undefiled ;
And that to follow leaders blind is weak and wicked thing.
For of the soul not prince, nor priest, but God alone is king.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY " gj
Then through thy quiet rural ways, O, lovely mother land,
And in thine ancient city streets, and on the North sea strand
Was heard a sound like wind at night among the leafy trees,
Or ceaseless break on sandy shores of never silent seas ;
And which in great waves rolled along to break at last in song.
" We go, we go, across the wave,
As Israel went of old.
To seek a home and find a grave,
In strange and distant fold.
We go, we go, the world is wide,
But love is ever near,
Our fathers' God is at our side ;
And true hearts know not fear.
" Across the sea, across the sea.
Are valleys fair and lone.
And forests rich, and wild, and free,
Which yet may be our own,
And where, unvexed by bishop's rule,
Or envious tyrant's hate.
We with God's help, in wisdom's school,
May rear a noble state.
" Where truth shall be the rule of life,
And faith have steadfast sway,
And not for gold or fame the strife.
But clear to see God's way.
Where loosed from old and craven fears.
Men see who once were blind.
That only thus through future years,
May souls sure freedom find.
" Farewell, farewell, we may not wait,
Our ships are in the bay,
And though to-night the tide is late.
Before the dawn of day.
We shall far off on shifting wave.
Watch line of fading shore.
The fairest shore God ever gave,
But home for us no more.
No more, no more, dear fading shore.
Our home, O, never more."
gS ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Their vo)-age was long on wintry- seas,
Tossed by the strange and baffling breeze,
And summer sun was warm and high,
Before their eyes saw coast line nigh.
That coast line was our Salem bay.
Glad then as now with light waves' play,
Fair then as now with rose and fern ;
But thickly set with forests stem,
WTiich all untrod pressed dark and grim,
Close to the white sand"s curv'ing rim ;
As they would hide from \-ision rude,
The haunts of virgin solitude.
And from whose depths as twilight fell,
Rose clear above the ocean's swell,
The owl's wild call, the wolf's dread roar,
And stealthy steps unheard before.
Which made young children closer creep.
And sobbing wake from restless sleep ;
^^'hile women knelt, their faces white.
Shrinking in fear from morning light
But with the mom, the mom of June,
Their hope sprang gay to wUd bird's tune,
And proudly rang their h)Tnn of praise.
Throughout the forest's leafy ways.
Then glad they sought the sheltered vales,
\Mience still were seen the harbor sails :
And where before the summer fled.
The log house had its thatch o'er head.
^^'hat matter then that winter cold
Trod hard on autumn's garb of gold ?
Or that the hearth stone, rough and low,
Was hidden deep in drifted snow ?
For safe within were child and wife,
And soul not with itself at strife,
AMiile will, and choice, and doctrine high.
Were free as earth and air and sky.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 99
They sought our woods, they loved our hills,
They hunted by our bubbling rills,
And one spring morn new township found
By yonder grass grown burying ground.
And soon by brook and river side.
Their rude homes scattered far and wide ;
While fairer than their shelters small,
Rose house of worship over all.
Where freely hymn and psalm rose high.
As God to humblest soul drew nigh ;
Where right was might, and will was fate,
For God was Lord of Church and State.
Strong were their hands and stern their will,
As with hard toil and patient skill.
They wrested harvests from the plain
And cleared the wood for waving grain.
The secrets of those early years.
The griefs, the pains, the hopes, the fears,
Are gone with children's faces sweet
Or fleeing red men's hurrying feet.
We faintly trace their farm lands' bound,
Their cellars' green and sunken round ;
Their meeting house upon the hill.
The stones of their first water mill.
Seek records of their parish wide
Who first was groom, and who the bride ;
Whose child first sat on Parson's knee,
Who first paid hated tithing fee.
Yet seek in vain ; but one dim page
Is wafted to us from their age ;
But one faint name on tombstone gray
Reveals their brief and bitter day.
We only know that firm and deep.
They tilled where we the harvest reap.
We only know the seal they set
Stamps all our best and noblest yet.
lOO ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
But Still our loving fancy turns,
To many an ancient road,
Where aged houses lowly bend,
Beneath the centuries' load.
One ■\\4th long line of sloping roof,
Where shadows come and go ;
And close about whose door stone gray,
The early wild flowers blow.
Is shrine for poet, and for saint,
Where pilgrims never cease ;
For grave Anne Bradstreet loved this haunt,
This haunt of ancient peace.
First poet of our Essex vale,
First woman in the land
To sing how sweet our meadows wide,
How fair our river strand,
And that the red man fierce and wild,
Was yet a child of God,
Who through uncounted years had been
Sole master of the sod.
O, grave Anne Bradstreet, saintly soul,
Your fame was early won,
Yet you loved best the mother's name,
The wifely work well done ;
And long years after you had found
Rest in your unknowTi grave,
A half forgotten deed of love,
Remembered, was, to save
Your child first born, your son, best lovec^
From worse than deadly doom,
Which smiting men and maids alike,
Wrapt all the town in gloom.
The infant town where winter snow, laid chill
Upon the plain, and where the noisy, rude
March winds, swept from the far off barren hill
To ravage field and wood.
The wretched town which roused from sleep,
That morning of long ago,
By oaths, and yells, and crackling fire,
And hurrying through the snow ;
Of wives and children shrieking wild,
Shivering and ghastly white.
In after years would never tell,
The horrors of that fight ;
But told instead, how oft in age,
They saw the blood red sky ;
And in their dreams heard wounded groan,
And tortured women cry
For help, to bear the cruel pain.
Or swift release of death,
While louder grew the dreadful din
Above their laboring breath.
The Indian horde swept through the town.
The house of God defiled.
And killed before the mother's eyes
Her new born helpless child.
They burned the harvest in the bam.
The cattle in the stall.
And dreadful as the curse of hell
Was their mad fiendish call.
And Parson Barnard, hid behind
His book shelves old and tall.
Heard painted leader orders give
Where next their blows should fall.
Then quick they burned the parish book,
And by their torches' shine
He saw how like the beasts they fought
For the communion wine.
I02 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
The Parson, without doubt, was saint,
But hotly rose his ire
As off they rushed to set at once
The Bradstreet house on fire.
He moved, he rose, but sank again,
Scared by a dreadful shout,
"The half fed wolves have found," he said,
" Some long sought plunder out."
He careful crept on hands and knees
And looked through crack in door.
As Dudley Bradstreet with his wife
And children weeping sore
Was hurried long the Haverhill road
By all the yelling band.
With kicks and blows and curses loud
And bloody knives in hand.
No backward look they dared to cast ;
Their half clad stumbling feet
Could hardly keep o'er frozen snow
Pace set for swift retreat.
As Parson watched them grieving loud,
The bitter north wind died.
And slowly faded fire and smoke
From off the countr)- side.
For that the Parson thanked the Lord,
And as he thanked he heard
What in the midst of that wild scene
His inmost spirit stirred,
A shout, it almost seemed of glee.
From just this side of wood ;
Where in a circle and unbound
The waiting captives stood.
Stopped short by daubed and painted chief
Not seen by them before,
Who cut the cords which held them tight
And at the leader swore.
Then turned to Bradstreet, Colonel called,
'* You do not know my face.
Do not remember years ago
When hunted in disgrace ;
25OTH ANNIVERSARY IO3
" An Indian boy crept to your home,
And by your mother seen,
Was warmed and fed, and all day hid
Behind the fireplace screen.
Was sheltered through the winter long.
And when pursuit was o'er
Was safely sent with escort strong
To Saco's distant shore.
" No harm shall touch your mother's child,
No man of Indian race
Shall lift a hand against the home
She made my hiding place.
Now homeward turn and tell her kin
One red man was not base
But loosed your bonds and spared your life
For her sweet act of grace."
Next Sabbath, when the Parson prayed.
He tlianked the Lord for those
Who while on earth fed, warmed, and clothed
And even loved their foes.
And then he told this gentle tale,
Which like a flower comes down
To light the darkness of the gloom
Which wrapped the infant town.
The Parson might have told as well, how few
Short years ago ; the Bradstreet house for two
Long months, was dark, and closed to all, how cries
Rose loud against the name, and how the sighs
Of men in pain, and women tortured sore
Were laid straightway at Dudley Bradstreet's door.
How with his wife he fled by night, and close
Was hid, until, again men's reason rose ;
Till prisoners were from jail released,
And o'er the land the witchcraft frenzy ceased.
Hardly is there a record left to guide
Us in our quest ; but still on one brook side
We trace the lane by which the sheriff went.
When he in haste for wretched witch wa.s sent.
104 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
And proud to-day should be our town to call
That witch's name ; for only she, of all
Who pined and stan'ed in Salem jail denied.
With lifted head, and fierce and stubborn pride,
That she herself a witch wife was, or could
Another make, or that so long as God was good,
Witch there could ever be. They hanged her then
And hid her bones in wild wolf's den.
But we upon our records high, wTite Martha Carrier's name,
And give the story of her fate a wide and deathless fame.
The end of first half centurj- found the town
Both rich and strong. Tho' fathers had lain down
The burden and the care, and slept in peace,
The mills and shops of sons showed great increase.
The humble school at "parting of the ways "
Had its own building new. In darkest days
They glad to Harvard gave; and freely sent
Their men and arms, and slender substance lent,
When rumors that the east by war was stirred ;
Or when the exiles' tales of woe were heard.
The old first parish wide was rift in twain
And South the new was called. Then bare and plain
Rose second meeting house, and Phillips wise,
First of the long and noble line, was named
Their pastor and their guide. Unblamed
He walked among them sixty years, and o'er
Their lives shed counsel clear, and ever more
Urged noblest deed and spirit high : so when
Were wanted sore, brave prompt and fearless men.
The old town lacked them not. Stem too was he.
Nor ever lightly looked at sin to see
If there excuse might be. To know the truth,
To do hard things, he taught the eager youth,
So when the dark days came no single man
Of Parson Phillips' flock, but quick began
His life to plan so that when called on high
He need not fear to meet his Parson's eye.
Yet life was life in those old days, and like our own
Was sad, or joyed in love's light o'er it thrown ;
While peace and shelter sweet of home, were thought
The dearest things, if not by honor bought.
Clear was it always understood the state
Was first, and though men might their ease abate,
The soldiers in the field must be supplied.
Needs of their wives and children satisfied,
And while as freemen sure, the action bold
Of those they chose to rule, might be controlled
By censure sharp ; they firmly held the ground
In their defense when others on them frowned.
They dreaded Papists like the death, yet found
Houses and farms, and chance to till the ground,
For guiltless ones who from Arcadian shores
By stress of war were driven to their doors.
And still on lovely western slope, a field
Is shown, that once of flax a wondrous yield
Produced under their skilful hands. When they,
Back to their homes were sent, sad was the day
And mournful their farewell. They left to show
Their love a carven powder horn, and bow.
And snatches gay of song and dance
And stories strange of distant sunny France.
I Io6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Then men still richer grew, while women fair
Began, as women should, to have their share
Of ease ; no longer was there fear of raid
By Indians wild ; no longer was the maid
Forced to hard toil in field, but at the side
Of cheerful fire, spun, wove, and told with glee
Light laughing tales of maiden's trickery.
Still heritage of freedom was not won.
A question grave, pressed hard, they could not shun ;
The mother land was dear, should they permit
Her rule when wrong ? Should they to tax submit,
Which wisest men of her own realm had said
Would not be paid where freedom was not dead ?
No, by high heaven ! The sea might o'er them roll,
The land they loved grow up again to wood.
Ere single penny of their gold should
Be unjustly wrung. All would they do and
More, if as was right by law of mother land
Son of their soil had seat, and voice in band
Which statutes made. Until that right was theirs,
Yield they would not to orders nor to prayers.
The mother's blood was like the child's, so talk
Ran high ; and over seas an army came
To cities hold, and sear the land with flame.
Quick sprang our town to arms, and on the first
Great day, the April day, when war cloud burst
At Lexington, and crimsoned Concord's plain
With blood, left loom, and plough, and tender grain
To reach the front. They did their share that day ;
And proved once more no price too high to pay
For freemen's rights. No need to tell how drum
And fife broke stillness of the vale, how hum
Of angry words, by night and day, grew loud ;
And everywhere from farm and shop, the crowd
Flocked to the aged church in hopes to hear
Where next a blow would fall ; perhaps how near.
Then marshalled quick the minute men who gazed
Toward Boston Bay, where hated war ships lay.
And each night e'er the sun went down, cried loud,
" To-morrow morn the word may come : ' Quick, crowd
You to the fight ; ' and so God speed the night."
Then at their arms they waiting stood, through spring days long and bright,
To hear at last 'neath summer skies, the summons to the fight.
250TH ANNIVERSARY I07
The grass was green upon the lawn
The corn waved dark and tall.
And all day long the oriole,
Whistled his silvery call.
But what the veil, the film, the cloud
That frights the air of June ?
And what the hush, the dread, the fear.
To which hearts beat in tune ?
And why do men set faces hard
And eyes of women fill ?
While trembling age and eager youth,
Press to the distant hill ?
No courier swift swept through the street
With beat of martial drum.
And none could tell how the dread news
To Andover town had come.
Only that e'er the cannon's roar.
Turned every heart's blood chill,
The voice was heard, " Stand fast ! They fight
To-day at Bunker Hill."
Dark rolled the smoke, when on the breeze
Was borne a deaf'ning shout
"We 've beat the red coats off the field,
We hold the frail redoubt ! "
Then there was mounting in hot haste
And hurrying to and fro.
For Doctor, Nurse, and Parson French
Swift to the field must go.
More weary hours wore slow away,
Again the mighty sound,
" A second time the red coats flee,
Once more they leave the ground."
O maids and wives, and mothers dear,
Whose sad eyes watched the fire,
God grant though on that summer day
You lost your hearts' desire.
That steadfast pride and courage high
Were yours through earthly ill.
For a great state was born that day.
That day at Bunker Hill !
Io8 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Loud and still louder roared the guns,
Thick smoke hid all the sky,
And still the silverj' oriole
Sang in the chestnut high.
At last the word, " Our powder gone,
We've turned us down the hill,
Content to prove this summer day.
This day at Bunker Hill !
That farmer lads can shake a crown
And lay proud England low,
And on a field they have not tilled
Such fearful harvest sow!"
Shot fell like rain on Charlestown Neck,
And brave the deeds oft told,
Of Bailey, Farnum, Frj-e, and Poor,
And stout John Barker bold.
For he was private in the ranks.
But last in the retreat ;
When Captain Farnum struck by shell,
Fell just across his feet,
He lifted and he held him high
Full in the redcoats' view
And shouted loud, " Now hold on Ben,
The Reg'lars sha' n't have you ! "
A hundred years have come and gone.
And still in stirring verse.
The children of North Andover
John Barker's deed rehearse.
And in the old-fashioned burying ground.
Shady and green and still,
On a mossy stone you oft may read,
" He fought at Bunker Hill."
He fought the fight, he kept the step.
Loyal, and brave, and true,
For a free land he paid the price
Comrades, that day for you.
So lowly kneel, and softly tread,
In the graveyard under the hill
Fame writes aloft no prouder line.
Than, " Fought at Bunker Hill."
250TH ANNIVERSARY I09
But not on battle fields alone
Our fathers' noble deeds have shone,
For when grim war was at their door
They calmly turned to lettered lore
And planted deep on hill top green,
Wide o'er the country to be seen ;
Not fortress stern from whence to rule.
But firm, enduring Christian school.
First in the land where learning old.
Disclosed to all its wealth of gold,
Where side by side, the rich and great
Sat low with men of mean estate.
And nobler still, the first in land,
To write on high that God's command
Was far above all classic lore,
Or poets from Castalian shore.
O noble soul of Phillips name.
To-day the whole world owns thy fame.
While Phillips School is loved and blest ;
Where'er men roam in east or west.
School, which for hundred years and more,
Has opened wide and generous door
To truth, when she was known by few,
To learning old, and science new.
Whose walls have rung with echo loud.
Great names of which the world is proud.
Dear names, which whether far or near.
Bring songs of love, and hope, and cheer.
So twine once more the ivy green.
And once more wreathe the bay leaves sheen ;
That town must never blush for shame,
Which guardian is of Phillips fame.
no ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
And as the years have come and gone,
Round Phillips School, so early bom,
Religion grave has made her seat,
And school for maidens, fair and sweet,
Has risen at the foot of hill ;
Fruit of the loving, generous will.
Of one who to the Phillips kin
In her low grave long years has been.
O, trio, blest, and good, and wise !
Pride in your fair fame never dies.
For of your life the noblest part
Springs deep from out the old town's heart.
And not alone these buildings high.
Ring with great names and reach the sky ;
We see grand faces in the street,
By stream and grove their clear eyes meet.
Here rode the Father of his land.
And gracious waved his courtly hand;
Here to the plaudits of the crowd.
The gallant Frenchman lowly bowed.
And parsons with their gowns and bands,
And hour glass quaint to tell the sands,
And women of heroic make,
Who risked their all for love's sweet sake.
But why their titles now rehearse?
Why praise their deeds in trembling verse ?
The seed they sowed has flowered in worth.
And "'added beauty to the earth."
250TH ANNIVERSARY 1
Then once again, as long ago, when life with love
was all aglow,
When men dwelt quiet at their ease.
And wealth was borne on every breeze,
Was heard a warning voice, " Not yet is freedom won ;
And ne'er will be, while in this land, a single son
Of mine is called a slave, is bought and sold, and made
To work in fields and woods, and in rice swamps, unpaid ;
Black he may be, or white, unknown, unlearned, or poor,
But while in bondage one is held, your freedom is not sure.
You have grown rich upon his toil ; you softly live,
While he is starved and cold. You must arise and give
Such freedom as is yours ; must break his heavy chains
Though at the cost of death, and prisoners' lonely pains.
"Then raise once more, O sons of mine.
My flag of heavenly blue ;
Draw once again my shining blade.
And hold it high in view.
Then close your ranks, and waiting stand
Till loud I call throughout the land."
They waited through the April days,
When tidings swiftly flew
That erring brothers in their rage
Had fired on flag of blue.
Had lifted sacrilegious hands
And laid it low on Charleston sands.
Then freedom from her starry heights.
Called loud the roll of fame.
And swift as arrow from the bow.
Came answer to the same.
Turn, comrades, turn, the old leaves o'er,
And read the lofty names once more.
But read them low on bended knee,
And humble tribute pay,
They were the noblest in our town,
Who heard the call that day.
And who once more to deadly strife
Bore high the names which shaped our life.
H2 AXDOVER, MA.SSACHUSETTS
No deed of theirs has ever shamed.
Our proud and ancient town ;
Their courage and their zeal, we count
The jewels in her crown.
And write their names on record high.
And ne'er will let their memory' die.
TTiat roll of fame I careful scan,
For name above the rest.
For some more shining word or deed.
To be by pen confest
But vainly scan, for every deed.
Asks of our praise the highest meed.
Yet stay, there is a simple boy,
Younger than those I see :
WTio often from our library wall,
Turns serious ej-es to me,
Not braver he than comrades true,
.\nd not so strong or wise,
.\nd who my words would hear to-day
Wixh scarcely pleased surprise.
Who would, perhaps, have said aloud,
" Our Captain was our pride,
And my messmate the bravest man
Who for the old flag died,
\Miile as for me, I loved my town.
And heard my countr}- call.
But in the camp and on the field.
Was boy amongst them aU."
But just because he was a boy,
Like those before me now,
The brighter shines his hurried life,
The aureole on his brow.
"You are too young," the elders cried.
Yet, when fresh summons came,
Again upon the crowded list.
Was Walter Raymond's name.
a 50TH ANNIVERSARY H3
Lone was the home he left behind,
But quick from field and tent,
Came boyish letters, brief and plain,
Begging that food be sent ;
And like a boy bewailing oft,
How slow and small his pay,
And how for papers and for books
He looked in vain each day.
" And how were all within the house ?
How bloomed his mother's flowers ? "
Ah, friends ! you think them trifles small,
But then the boy was ours.
More serious soon the letters grew,
And simple as a child.
He told how when 'twas time to fight,
He knelt in thicket wild.
And asked his God to help him stand
Firm in his ordered place ;
And that he might not be afraid
To meet his foeman's face.
Low over to himself he said
The collect for the day,
And knew the Lord was by his side.
Through all the fearful fray.
The summer brief was almost gone,
When in one twilight sweet,
A passing friend laid lightly down,
Across his mother's feet,
A letter, faded, crumpled, old.
Which told how days before,
Her boy upon a rapid raid
Along the river shore,
Had captured been by rebel horde,
And driven swift away ;
But to what city, or what town.
No man of them could say.
No more than this, except that he
Called loud to those behind ;
To turn them sharp, and save the trap.
To which he had been blind.
114 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
It was a brave and generous thing
To do that fatal day,
" But then you know," they only said,
"That it was Walter's way."
Then darkness like the blackest night,
And silence like the tomb,
Hid from their straining, aching hearts,
The knowledge of his doom.
And that the tale was common then.
More bitter made the grief,
More keen the anguish of the home,
Where hope gave no relief.
'Twas autumn first, and winter then.
But when the tardy spring.
Was sweet with leaves, and buds, and flowers,
And songs the wild birds sing ;
They heard, how in a prison pen,
111, cold, and starved beside ;
While bells rang loud for Christmas Day
That brave young boy had died.
And heard as well, how urged to sell
His honor, and be free.
He answered with uplifted head,
"The dead cart first for me."
How begged to steal from scanty store.
Of feebler men than he,
The answer still had been the same,
"That will not do for me,
They do not teach, you see, their boys
That way in my old town ;
Just tell my father how I died;"
And smiling laid him down.
Our Christmas bells o'er fields of snow,
He needed not to hear,
For loud rang out the bells of Heaven
As that pure soul drew near.
And boys, with clear eyes like his own.
Who bear his name to-day.
Who proudly march beneath the flag,
Which o'er his soul had sway.
Remember through all coming years ;
Whatever storms betide.
How grandly for that starry flag,
Young Walter Raymond died.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 115
Prof. Churchill, in welcoming the company at the begin-
ning of the banquet, said :
Fellow Citizens : Let us congratulate ourselves that we are
assembled in such goodly numbers on this day of brightness and
beauty, to celebrate the quarter-millenial birthday of our dear old
town. It is my pleasant duty and privilege to welcome, in your name,
the invited guests of the day, — our distinguished chief magistrate
and members of his staff who accompany him, our representa-
tive in the national halls of Congress, the sons and daughters of
Andover who come back to the old home as on some glad Thanks-
giving festival, and other respected guests whom we have invited to
share with us in the congratulations and the hopes of the hour ; one
and all we bid you thrice welcome. Happy are we in the day itself,
the "bridal of earth and sky;" it is a day for the Doxology. I think
we cannot better express the sentiment of our common heart than by
uniting hearts and voices in that glorious old Doxology which our
fathers sung; after which the Rev. Frank R. Shipman, pastor of the
Old South Church, chaplain of the day, will invoke the divine presence
The Doxology was then sung by the audience, led by the
band ; and grace was said by Chaplain Shipman.
After the banquet was finished, at 3.10 o'clock, Prof.
Churchill rose and opened the speaking as follows :
Commemoration days like this, my fellow citizens, are to be cher-
ished as the blossoms of century plants, so rare are they, so fragrant
with the aroma of the past, so full of suggestive interest. The anni-
versary itself carries its own enjoyment. What lineal son of our
worthy sires is not quickened to his heart's depths as he thinks of
kindred and ancestry } What citizen of Andover is not thrilled with
pardonable pride as he realizes through the scenes and the events of
the day his vital connection with the dangers and achievements of the
days of long ago ?
Il6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Time, in his advance of two centuries and a half, has cast behind
him a deep shadow, covering many a name, many a scene, many an
event, inseparably intermingled with the fortunes of the present and
the hopes of the future. With Old Mortality, the wandering religious
enthusiast of Scottish romance, we consider that we " are fulfilling a
sacred duty while renewing to the eye of posterity the zeal and the
sufferings of our forefathers." In this spirit of veneration for a brave
and godly ancestry, we said to the orator of the day : " Take the anti-
quarian's torch, penetrate the dark corners, search out the hidden
things of our histor}% sweep the dust from honored names, tear away
the moss from their deeds, retrace the fading lines, that we may have
a distincter knowledge and a deeper appreciation of the beginnings
of our goodly heritage." Most splendidly has he accomplished his
noble task. Gratefully do we recognize the patient care and the
consummate skill with which he has performed this pious duty to the
past. We summoned the poet of the day, and bade her "with garland
and with singing robes about her," to stir and touch our hearts with
the romance that lies along the pathway of the centuries. Most
impressively has she appealed to our hearts and imaginations, as she
has sung to us of the saintly Ann Bradstreet, of the dauntless Martha
Carrier, of the brave John Barker, and told how young Walter
And now, with the solemnities completed, we linger a little while
around the family table, to engage in the interchange of thought and
sentiment ; and in friendly talk catch glimpses of some of those side-
lights which illumine the significance of our life and history as a good
old New England town.
Instinctively, we all think first of our beloved Com-
monwealth ; and we gladly salute him who so honorably
represents her as the executive head of the great State of
which Andover is a component part. Let our first senti-
ment, then, be Tlie Commonwealth of Jfcissac/utsetts.
It is with peculiar pride and pleasure that I present
His Honor, Lieut. Gov. Roger Wolcott, Acting Governor of
the State of Massachusetts.
ACTING GOVERNOR ROGER WOLCOTT
Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of the historic town of
Andover : I should be tempted to begin the informal words that I
250TH ANNIVERSARY II7
shall speak to you to-day with a word of congratulation upon the
peculiar splendor of this beautiful spring day, if it were not that I
have thought that I detected at the lips of your reception committee,
when I referred to that impressive subject of the weather, a sort of
suggestion that it was no cause of peculiar congratulation to the people
of Andover, because a day like this was nothing more than their just
It has been my privilege to attend many occasions of this com-
memorative nature ; some of them marking, as this does, the close of a
period in the history of a municipality, others commemorating the
recurrence of the death of some noted individual or of the happening
of some noted event ; and I have always found such occasions to pos-
sess a peculiar interest to any son of the Commonwealth of Massa-
chusetts. I believe that it is a holy and a pious duty to bring back to
the minds of the young the fresh memory of these great events of the
past. I believe that it does good to any son or daughter of the good
old stock of New England to teach him anew the lesson of the suffer-
ing and the endurance and the heroism of the men and women that
have laid the foundation of this Commonwealth. I believe that to the
mind of the son of the newest immigrant upon our shores, the latest
arrival, who has come here loyally to cast in his lot with ours, that it
is good for him to learn that he is throwing in his history and his
contribution into the vast story of a great and a noble past.
It is true, and it is the pride of the Commonwealth that it is true,
that many features of these local histories are similar. They all tell
the story of the life of a municipality from its humble beginning when
there was suffering and endurance, when there were no great differ-
ences of wealth or position, although the parson and the squire always
received the acknowledgment of their recognized position, but there
were no extremes of great wealth or of squalid poverty. The story
goes on through the long struggle with nature and the final fight with
the Indians, and then it carries the story of the town or the city through
the splendid period of the Revolution, and it brings it along through
all the rapid development of this century, until we come down to that
last bugle blast in defence of nationality and to wipe out the curse of
slavery, and then, thank God, the story of that period of all the towns
and all the cities of the Commonwealth, my friends, is very much the
same. It is honorable to them all.
Il8 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
And yet, there are here and there these local differences that pre-
vent the story from being monotonous. You take one group of towns
skirting the Cape and running up to the rocky peak of Cape Ann, and
you find that all down through their story there is the smell of salt
water. You take another group of towns, and they crown our hills
across the centre of the Commonwealth, until we come to the forests
of Berkshire, and there you find the story of slow growth, in some
cases, I regret to say, of a diminishing population ; and yet, there you
know that from those hard and barren farms there come the brave
young men and the virtuous girls that come down to our cities and
make the very best element in our urban population.
Then you take the great cities that have grown up, because they
have made their contribution to the wonderful industrial progress of
the time, and you know that they are contributing to cheapen the
products of man's labor and to make what are the luxuries of one gen-
eration the necessities and the common possession of the next. And
then there is the final group to which the town of Andover belongs ;
Cambridge, with Harvard College ; Somerville, with Tufts ; Amherst ;
way off in the corner of the State, Williams College, honored and
beloved ; and then the towns that are famous because they have made
academies that have made a name and a fame for themselves. And
then in this presence how shall I speak upon Andover, with its old
seat upon a hill, with its long story of public service of individuals and
of families, with its high standard of learning and of poetry, its influ-
ence stretching far beyond the limits of this Commonwealth, the torch
lighted at its sacred altar borne beyond the boundaries of our State
and carrying its gleam and its light well nigh around the world. Your
orator to-day, in felicitous and eloquent words, has told the remarkable
story of these two hundred and fifty years. The Commonwealth recog-
nizes its debt to the town of Andover. It owes to it a part of its fame,
and yet I need not remind you that the town of Andover owes much
to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The summons of the State
and of the nation in the late war was heard more willingly by the men
of Andover, because it was brought here wafted on a breeze that had
touched the summit of Bunker Hill, that had swept across Concord
and Lexington, yes, that had brought a part of its influence and its
inspiration from Plymouth Rock. And so it is true, also, that the
men who during the last century nearly have honorably taught the
250TH ANNIVERSARY I19
young the best learning on yonder hill, learned and conscientious,
devoted as these teachers may have been and were, their task was
made somewhat easier to them because the atmosphere in which
they lived quivered and hung like a benediction over a State that at
one period — and I speak with almost literal truth — had within its
boundaries all the prominent historians of the nation and all the poets
of the first class and rank. And so I say, my friends, that the task of
instructing the young, the task of teaching them something of the
high love of letters and of learning, was made the easier to these men,
because they taught on the soil of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
All these towns owe something to this beautiful figure of the
State that rises about them and behind them, stretching out her handS
in benediction, and with the love of a mother to all her children. They,
too, are the bulwarks of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth
returns the debt of gratitude to them. She congratulates them, one
and all, upon their contributions to the sum aggregate of her honora-
ble and illustrious history. She congratulates them "upon such an
event as this. She bids them make their future, as she is confident
they will, worthy of the past. She feels sure that, as in the past
learned men have gone forth from Andover, that as in the past heroic
defenders of the nation's honor have gone forth from the town of
Andover, so in the future, whatever length of days may stretch in
diminishing vista before the town of Andover, whether the future
pathway of her progress be one bathed in the splendid sunlight of
to-day, or whether dark and ominous clouds may shadow her path, she
feels sure that the elements of manhood, the elements of womanhood
that have made the history of Andover honorable and illustrious in
the past, that these same elements of courage, patriotism, and high
learning and good citizenship will always be found within this town in
The President : I give you as our next sentiment,
The Ptiblic Set vice of the Nation. Andover is quick to
recognize the wisdom, zeal and efficiency with which her
rejaresentative at the national capitol shares in the current
legislation of the country. The representative of the sixth
congressional district signally honors his Andover constitu-
ency to-day by making a journey from Washington for the
special purpose of participating in our celebration. You will
gratefully welcome the Hon. William S. Knox, of Lawrence.
t20 ANbOVER, MASSACHUSEtTS
CONGRESSMAN WILLIAM S. KNOX
Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen : Enjoyable as this day is
and has been out of doors, upon this beautiful site, where the fore-
fathers planted the town of Andover, I am sure that our chief happiness
has been in the old village church, as our thoughts have been directed
back with a master-hand to the history of the events that have tran-
spired here and the lives of the men that were spent here. And,
when the orator said that he should leave to the orator of the three
hundredth anniversary of Andover the duty of relating the history of
this town in the civil war, I could but feel that the orator of that day
will recount among the achievements of Andover the masterly oration
which was delivered here upon its two hundred and fiftieth anniversary.
I am grateful, Mr. President, for the privilege of sharing in the
festivities of to-day and for the inspiration to higher thought and ef-
fort that comes to us all as we contemplate a long past, glorified with
the virtues of piety and patriotism of a people who have come and
gone within the limits of this historic town. And, as I was driving
this morning upon the high ground, and could see the beautiful land-
scape and the smoke and the chimneys of Lawrence, I thought, if only
one of those sturdy sons of toil and devotion who has tilled these fields
and through patience and sacrifice helped to start the onward march
of freedom and progress that has crossed the continent could be per-
mitted to revisit these scenes to-day, he would find conformation of
field and hill and river, he could listen to the same enunciation of
religious truth. But that would be all. Only the works and work of
the Creator would have endured here unchanged. Through the old
woodlands he could see the imprisoned steam force the freighted cars
over their pathway of steel, and would be told that over those glitter-
ing rails he could ride to the Pacific Ocean. In what was once the
ancient village street, he could see the car laden with humanity pro-
pelled by an unseen power, lighted from an unknown source, a mighty
energy, yet so subtle that over the homely wire upon which he gazed
would be passing written messages of men and the delicate modulations
of the human voice. Should he direct his steps still within the
limits of the old township to the banks of the familiar river, and
after the sun was down see the countless light reflected upon its
placid wave, and be told it was no illusion, no dream of the fancy, but
that those vast structures before him were filled with machinery of
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 121
marvellous mechanism, that under the guidance of the human hand
tirelessly spun and wove the useful and beautiful fabrics of an ad-
vanced civilization ; and finally, when told that Andover was a part of
a nation of more than three millions of square miles, and that over
that vast extent there floated but one flag, and under that flag every
man was free, he could but return to his abode of bliss with increased
In all this marvellous development of America, Andover has
borne her full share, and now she represents, not the average intelli-
gence, not the average of culture, but the highest intelligence, the
consummation of culture. She typifies in herself the christian Com-
monwealth. She illustrates the high character of citizenship that is
fulfilled under a government founded upon the moral law. This high
citizenship, which has been implanted in the new states of the west,
must be the hope and reliance of the country in the future. Its
mission is to preserve the traditions of the past, to educate her de-
scendants and the vast throng of newcomers that reach our shores in
the principles upon which this government was founded.
I remember to have read within a week in a sermon the declaration
of the preacher that, while the American Bible Society placed in the right
hand of every immigrant a copy of the Holy Scriptures, the United
States government ought to place in his left hand a volume containing
a copy of the Declaration of Independence, the constitution of the
United States, and an article upon the spirit of our laws. I would add
to that, let that volume contain a history of one of the early towns of
New England, let it contain a history of Andover, that he might be
learned in all that makes good citizenship, that he might behold
the love of liberty that drove our fathers to these shores, the
piety and devotion of their lives, their heroism and sacrifice, their
courage and thrift, their patience and submission to law. That is the
kind of education that promises most for this country in the future.
More than that, it is the kind that is absolutely essential to our safety
and welfare in the future, for it is the intelligence of the majority that
must shape our course, no matter how cultured may be the minority.
Who can measure, then, the usefulness of this celebration to our
common country, as the eloquent words which have been spoken, re-
newing the events that have transpired here, and portraying the
virtues of the men who founded this town, who passed their lives here,
122 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
are through the medium of the press placed in the hands of the
American people. This day does not belong to Andover. It has be-
come the property of the entire country. Who could count the
youth that, as they read of it, will be inspired to a more profound
study of the early history of this country and a better understanding
of the principles upon which this government was founded, a clearer
conception of the danger of any departure from them. Who can
estimate the men that now careless or negligent in the discharge of
political duty, shall be quickened to its more conscientious exercise,
shall become imbued with the spirit of our laws, shall get a closer view
of the genius of American freedom.
The light reflected from the history of Andover, as it has been
portrayed by us today, will illumine, my friends, a pathway extending
far into the future. The influence of New England as a numerical
factor in the political movements of the day is small. Her lack of
national resources, her distances from the source of supply or raw
material, make it probable that her increase in number and in wealth
will not keep pace in the future with that of the rest of the country ;
but the power of her history, the store of the humble agricultural
communities which had their beginnings here, will grow with the pass-
ing years in the life of the republic. For the history and the story is
of principle embodied in law, which is changeless with the flight of
time, and which must be preserved as they were adopted here, if
liberty and a free government are to endure upon this continent.
Let, then, the story of Andover that has been told here to-day be
spread broadcast throughout the land. Let it be spread again, we
pray, two hundred and fifty years from now, and again a thousand
years from now.
The President : Before announcing the next senti-
ment, I will read an extract from an Andover boy of the
West Parish, Hon. George O. Shattuck, one of the foremost
members of the legal profession at the Boston bar :
" We have a right to be proud that we were born in a
town with such a record of courage and sacrifice among its
early settlers, and of enterprise and of wise liberality among
those of later generations. It is good for us to hold these
things in grateful remembrance."
250TH ANNIVERSARY 1 23
The President read a telegram from Rev. Dr. William
Jewett Tucker, President of Dartmouth College, fourteen years
a resident of Andover while Professor of Homiletics in Ando-
ver Theological Seminary.
" I greet the Andover of the present and future, as well as the
Andover of the past. The Fathers are honored in the Sons. They
have kept the birthright of intellectual freedom, and have enlarged
the heritage. I congratulate those who are to have part in the greater
The president made reference to an excellent letter from
Senator Frye, of Maine.
The president also called attention to the fact that the
leader of the famous band which gave such fine music is an
Andover boy; Mr. J. Thomas Baldwin who first saw light on
The President : Our Fathers : they builded better than
they knew. A North Andover boy, who knows the history
of the old town by heart, can speak as no one else can, of
one of our ancient worthies, Andover's most illustrious
citizen, Simon Bradstreet. I call upon Hollis R. Bailey,
Esq., of Boston, for a response.
HOLLIS R. BAILEY, ESQ.
Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, fellow citizens, and friends :
I have been introduced to you as of Boston. That was a mistake. I
am of old Andover, and always hope to be, if not in legal residence,
in love and affection and in filial devotion.
I am asked to come here on this occasion as representing the
daughter town of North Andover, my native town. And, in speaking
on my own behalf and on behalf of the many citizens of North An-
dover whom I see before me, I am sure I am right in saying that we
have all come with willing feet and joyful hearts to join in this glad
anniversary celebration. When I was born in 1852, there was but
one Andover ; and, ladies and gentlemen and friends, there is but one
Andover today. North, South, and West, are joined in one under
glad influence of this anniversary occasion. A common tradition,
124 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
a common ancestry, makes us one in thought, in feeUng, and in broth-
I have said we are proud to come here to-day and claim our part
in this glorious inheritance of the old town of Andover. We are all
proud of that inheritance. We have heard, as the orator of the day
has most conspicuously detailed to you, the list of illustrious names.
It is not for me to speak of those names, and yet it seems to me
proper that I should speak of one or two or three which, on every
occasion of this kind in the future, must come to the lips of every
speaker. T.he names of Phillips, of Abbott, of Osgood, of Frye ; when
can they be forgotten ? To leave them out were to leave out the
major part of the history of Andover. And yet they all earned their
laurels and gained their reputation long after the day when Simon
Bradstreet died, a resident of the North Parish, the man of whom I
am on this occasion to say a word.
It seemed to me, when I was called to assume the duty of saying
a word on behalf of North Andover, that there was no subject more
fitting than that to remind you of Simon Bradstreet, who he was, and
what he was, and what he did for the town of Andover. It seemed to
me that, born in the house that he built, reared in the house where
his noble wife, Anne Bradstreet, the first poetess of America, spent
the closing years of her life, brought up in that house made notably
famous, and the one relic of the past which has come down to us of
all the many relics which are past and gone, the house where the In-
dians came and took away in one wintry day the family of Dudley
Bradstreet, and carried them on the road to Haverhill, to be released
as you have been told in the poem we have heard read in the church.
Now, Simon Bradstreet is entitled to our filial regard for four
distinct reasons : first, as founder ; second, as magistrate ; third, as am-
bassador ; and, fourth, as governor.
I say, first, as founder ; for John Woodbridge, without the assist-
ance and the encouragement of the elder brother-in-law, would hardly
have ventured into the wilderness to establish the town of Andover.
In 1644 and '45 and '46, it was a bold undertaking to establish, close
under the Indian settlement on the banks of the Merrimack, a new
town. It was asking a good deal for a delicate woman like Anne
Bradstreet to venture into that wilderness ; and when John Woodbridge
planned and carried out the settlement of Andover, he was bold and
250TH ANNIVERSARY I25
courageous in securing the support and encouragement of Simon
Bradstreet ; and he was bold in asking his wife to come with him into
the wilderness, because he knew that his wife's sister was coming to
be a companion and support in that little community. Simon Brad-
street, then, and John Woodbridge, as I read the pages of history,
were the chief and principal founders of this old town.
Next, Simon Bradstreet was a distinguished and worthy citizen of
this town as a magistrate and judge of the Supreme Court for a period
of forty-nine years. He has the reputation of having been an upright
and just judge. All through those trying days of religious persecution,
persecution of the Quakers and persecution of the so-called witches,
Simon Bradstreet was the one who led in that persecution.
Simon Bradstreet is also entitled to our glad recognition and re-
membrance as the one citizen in all the colony who in that trying
crisis in 1661 was selected out of all the laity of the colony to that
delicate and dangerous mission to the court of Charles the Second.
You remember the story. The little colony during the fifteen years
of the war of the revolution and the government of Cromwell had
grown bold in their enjoyment of their self -liberty, and then came the
restoration of Charles the Second. The rumor came that their be-
loved charter, the foundation of all their rights and privileges, was
to be annulled. And then, the General Court selected two of its most
able citizens to go to the court of Charles the Second and represent
them. And a citizen of Andover, the chief citizen of Andover, Simon
Bradstreet, was one of those ambassadors. In February, 1662, leaving
the simplicity, the plainness, almost barrenness of that new settle-
ment here in the town of Andover, Simon Bradstreet started on
that stormy voyage on a wintry sea for the court of Charles the
Second, that most luxurious of the Stuart kings. What a contrast it
must have been between now and then ! And yet, Simon Bradstreet,
that citizen of Andover, was faithful to the trust that was reposed in
him, and was as successful as could have been expected. He obtained
a further renewal or extension of the charter, and put off for twenty-
five years the evil day, which at last came with the closing days of his
In one other respect Simon Bradstreet is entitled to our grateful
recognition. He was the one governor, as I recall the history of the
town, that the town has thus far had. When we meet, as the orator
126 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
of the day suggested wc should meet, fifty years hence, it is very
possible that the town of Andover will have had two or three governors,
but up to the present time Simon Bradstreet is the one representative
that we have thus far had in the gubernatorial chair. I am sure of
this, that there will come no crisis in the history of the Common-
wealth that will be greater, that will require more skill and prudence
and fidelity of its chief magistrate than did those troubled years in
the latter part of the seventeenth century, when Bradstreet was called
to the helm as a man of prudence, a man of integrity, as a man who
might be safely called upon to conduct the little colony, as it then
was, through those dangerous days.
On this occasion, there is no time to make an analysis or a careful
study of the character of Simon Bradstreet. The historian sets down
that he was a man of prudence, a man of integrity, and a man of piety.
I would add to that that, as it seems to me, he was a man of courage.
In the year 1643, he stood out as a citizen of Ipswich against
the conduct of Governor John Winthrop, and of his own father-in-law,
Thomas Dudley. In those same years, as commissioner of the united
colonies of New England, by his prudence and firmness and courage,
he prevented a disastrous war with the Dutch settlement. In almost
the final year of his life, in that troubled time when Andros was de-
posed, and the provisional government was set up, Bradstreet, above
the age of ninety, was called to the helm. It required no small degree
of personal courage to take that position, for the reason that no one
knew whether the Stuart king or his successor would, at the coming of
the next ship from England, send his commissioners to bring back the
heads of the men who had been so bold as to take up that position on
behalf of the colonies.
Now, ladies and gentlemen and friends, I desire, on behalf of the
citizens of North Andover, to thank the authorities of Andover, to
thank all others at Andover, for their courtesy extended to us of the
daughter town. I say the daughter town, because we recognize the
fact that on other occasions than this there may be rivalry — always a
generous rivalry — but on this occasion, I repeat, we are all one.
Now, let me say in closing, we shall always, fifty years hence,
and two hundred and fifty years hence, I am sure, be glad to come and
unite with the mother town as members of one household in any
celebration which holds up and sustains the honor of old Andover.
250TH ANNIVERSARY I27
The President : We are fortunate in having with us
the owner of one of the best farms in Massachusetts ; a
man bearing an old Andover name in the days of 1775, and
a neighbor in our own County of Essex, — Capt. Francis H.
Appleton of Peabody, whom I will ask to respond to the
sentiment, The Progress of Modern Agriculture : Practice co-
operating with Science makes two blades of grass grow
where only one grew before.
CAPT. FRANCIS H. APPLETON
It is both a privilege and a pleasure to be called on to speak in
this interesting and historic town upon an occasion like this, where I
vividly remember passing a number of summer months in my child-
hood's days, upon the shores of your beautiful Cochickewick Lake
near the old mill. I feel grateful to have, as your guest, been permit-
ted to listen this morning to so interesting an oration and so delightful
a poem, both so admirably presented.
Descended from Ipswich stock on one side, and from Salem Vil-
lage stock on the other, I am glad to come up from Southern Essex to
try and speak a few words to you under the toast advanced by your
The people of Massachusetts and good old Essex County are
universally interested in agriculture, and when prayers were recently
offered up in the churches for rain, I am sure that all others joined in
a like supplication for that which is of prime necessity in all branches
of agriculture. That prayer was then universal among our people.
Soon after the termination of the Revolutionary war, Gen. Wash-
ington, Col. Timothy Pickering and others joined in an effort to pro-
mote the cause of agriculture in the new nation. This encouraged
the forming of societies, and establishment of newspaper columns in
the interest of better agriculture. State societies were organized from
1785-1792, in South Carolina, Pennsylvania and New York, as well as
Among those in Massachusetts who made early efforts to advance
our agriculture, were : Samuel Adams, " the father of the Revolu-
tion ; " John Amory, Jr., then Secretary of State ; Charles Bulfinch,
well known in connection with the capitol at Washington and our
state house ; Stephen Higginson, a Salem-born man ; Samuel Holten
of Danvers ; John Lowell (1743-1802), who sent his son John to
128 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
Phillips Academy in the first year of the academy, 1778, with Josiah
Quincy and John Phillips ; and Azro Orne of Marblehead.
It is interesting to note that both the Lowells, father and son,
were presidents of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agricul-
ture which Samuel Adams and the others established in 1792.
The members of that old society joined in forming county socie-
ties later, and in 1818 Col. Pickering and others organized the Essex
Agricultural Society for our County at Topsfield. Dr. Treadwell later
gave his farm to that society, undoubtedly feeling that the cattle show
would later need a fixed abode at this geographical centre.
The early efforts of our patriotic citizens, of all callings in the
work of life, to advance agriculture has so continued. But of later
years the needs and conditions have greatly changed.
The Department of Agriculture at Washington has been estab-
lished with its many scientific branches, and includes the very valuable
Experimental Station Bureau. Then the national government has
appropriated large sums of money for use in the several states and
territories for agricultural experiment station work and agricultural
college advancement. Other agricultural departments of learning
exist, as, for example, at Harvard's Bussey Institution, and Arnold
Arboretum, and veterinary school.
Surely, science is offering opportunities for the practical mind to
receive, and apply to agricultural needs, much profitable knowledge. It
only remains for our people to see that the best means are provided so
that those who need it shall be able to readily obtain it so that it shall
redound to the State.
There is no reason why two blades of grass should not grow
where one grew before, on land that is worth cultivating. Undoubtedly
much land which is cleared to-day would be more profitable if covered
with trees, because too poor for tillage.
It is, however, truly discouraging to see the sweeping destruction
caused by carelessness, if by no worse motive, or lack of motive, of so
much of our wood lands. You of Andover saw it yesterday and the
day before, while we in Peabody and Lynnfield were fighting the
damaging and dangerous flames at the same time.
Is not carelessness even criminal, that may result in destroying,
by forest fire, valuable and beautiful wood lands, and too often wiping
off the face of the earth all an individual householder's belongings that
25OTH ANNIVERSARY I 29
he calls his home ? I feel that it is clearly so, and that the most strin-
gent laws are needed in this direction. We are behind some other
States in this, where we should lead.
Agriculture is a business, as is the occupation of the merchant ;
and the agriculturalists and other business men must continue to walk
and work together for their own and the country's good. They must
promote, and apply the results of intelligent study, especially when
the government appropriates much money for a like purpose. The
tax-payer has reason to object if the use of those payments is not to
Massachusetts agriculture must advance by the application of
advanced science. We boast of our educational institutions in this
State, as you of Andover can well do. Let us see that the product is
applied to the State's good in agriculture as in all other branches of
activity in this world's affairs.
Under the statutes, every citizen is eligible to membership in our
county agricultural societies. I believe that the membership in such
societies must be the medium of bringing better agriculture from the
teachings of our National Department of Agriculture and our State
experiment stations, to those who are entrusted with our country's
I thank you for your kind attention to my few words.
The next toast was The Sons of Andover in the Christian
Ministry, but Rev. Dr. E. Winchester Donald who was to
respond was unable to be present.
The President : After the plough, the church, and
the schoolhouse, come the mill, the factory, and the machine
shop, I give you The Industrial Interests of Andover. The
Industrial Arts will receive the greatest impulse if honor is
given to those who carry great enterprises to an assured
success. Who is better qualified to respond to this senti-
ment than the man whom both Andovers — North and South
— delight to honor, their foremost manufacturer, and late
representative in Congress,— the Hon. Moses T. Stevens .-'
HON. MOSES T. STEVENS
Mr. President : We have heard from the orator of the day, and
from the speeches that have been made here, a good deal about the
130 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
olden times. We have gone back a good ways. The president has
asked me to respond to the manufacturing interests of the town, and I
cannot go back as far as others do, but the men to whom I refer are
men whom I have personally known, and you all know that I am a
young man yet.
After a few brief opening remarks Mr. Stevens continued :
The textile and mechanical manufacturers of the early days of
our country, dwelt in nearly every house. While the mothers and
daughters were occupied in carding, spinning and weaving the woolen
and linen goods for the clothing of the families, for which we see the
primitive tools in yonder hall, fathers and sons were engaged in cul-
tivating the lands, nearly every one of them having some kind of a
mechanical trade which they carried on for themselves, and in supply-
ing the wants of the country, which gave them great self-reliance, and
carried out the spirit of freedom which had much to do with their
commg to this new country, as well as led to their success.
Early in the settlement of the country, mills for grinding corn
and manufacturing lumber had been established at points on Cochich-
ewick brook in the north parish, and on the Shawsheen river in the
Between 1800 and 18 10, James Schofield and Abraham Marland
came from England where they had learned the woolen business, and
both commenced to manufacture woolen goods in the north parish.
Mr. Schofield remained there, and Mr. Marland went to the south
parish. Mr. Marland continued to manufacture woolen goods in the
south parish and experimented somewhat in cotton, but became one of
the largest woolen manufacturers of the times, and founded the village
which now bears his name. In 1828, he appeared before the Com-
mittee on Manufactures of the House of Representatives at Washing-
ton, and testified that in 1825 he worked up 34,000 lbs. of wool, in
1826, 34,000 lbs., and in 1827, 50,000 lbs. of wool in a year.
I will leave our former townsman, Mr. Whitman of the Arlington
mills, and our present townsman, Mr. Wood of the Washington mills,
to figure on the number of minutes that quantity of wool would
supply their vast establishments, to show how great has been the in-
crease from these small beginnings.
In answer to a question why he came to America, in 181 5, Mr.
Marland answered that " he might have elbow room for his children."
25OTH ANNIVERSARY I3I
The same spirit induced Ezekiel Osgood in 1764, with a family of
twelve children to emigrate from Andover to Blue Hill in Maine,
giving as a reason that "he wanted to go where his children would
have no stint of land."
After Mr. Marland had established the business in the village
which bears his name, his eldest son, John Marland, inheriting the
spirit of enterprise from his father, went to Ballardvale and founded
the present Ballardvale company. For a time he took a hand in the
cotton business, his attention was also given to the worsted business ;
he was the first man to introduce the worsted business into this country,
but did not contirme it, as the times were not ripe for reaping the
rich harvest which has been the means of building the great worsted
mills of this country. He built the large shop which has been used for
John Marland had been educated as a flannel manufacturer, and
made that his chief business. His monument stands there today, in a
business for which he laid the foundation and which was continued by
those who were early associated with him, then coming to a descend-
ant of one of the original proprietors, Capt. Bradlee, who while living,
gave his whole life to the care of that business, and who will be known
to future generations by the praises of those who are today employees
of the mills for his liberality and attention to their wants and by those
who are in the future to receive untold benefits from the disposition of
his great fortune.
With the increase of population, there had been a corresponding
increased demand for woolen goods and other men, natives of Andover
and the neighboring towns, were induced to embark in the new enter-
prise of manufacturing. The war of 181 2 had made prices very high,
and called much attention to those interests.
In 181 3, Nathaniel Stevens built a mill on Cochichewick brook,
on the site where Mr. Bradstreet built the first grist mill, in North
Andover, and giving his whole attention to manufacturing, with the aid
of James Schofield, was soon able to carry it on successfully, and laid
the foundation of the present Stevens mills, which are now run by his
In 1826, William Sutton of Danvers, and in 1828, George Hodges
of Salem, came to the north parish and started small mills which under
132 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
their care and active attention, have grown to the present proportions,
and are now run by the successors of William Sutton.
Among the early men to engage in this business were Abiel and
Paschall Abbott, from whom Abbott Village derives its name and
Daniel Saunders, who was instrumental in starting the neighboring
city of Lawrence, was also at one time engaged in the manufacture of
wool in the north parish. The enterprise of all these men has made
Andover one of the largest woolen manufacturing towns in the state.
About 1820, there came from Scotland another who is remembered
by many of the present generation, John Smith, a true mechanic, who
was alive to all the interests of his fellow men, regardless of race,
religion or color. No better friend of the colored man ever lived.
His first venture was to establish a machine shop in which machinery
was built for the cotton mills that were rapidly increasing in the
countr}-. From the first start he was successful. In a little book
called the " Rich Men of Massachusetts," published fifty years ago,
the estimated amount of his property is stated with these comments :
"Native of Scotland, came to this country about forty years ago a
poor man, first a machinist at Waltham, and afterwards went into busi-
ness at Andover. W'lien he had made a fortune here, he sent for his
friends from Europe, for whom he had made ample pro\nsion. A man
of great industry, who looks after his own business. Benevolent in
Among the " friends from Europe for whom he made ample pro-
vision," were his brother Peter Smith and John Dove. These men
induced him to engage in the linen business which resulted in the
extensive linen works in Abbott Village now run by their successors,
which have been so great a benefit to the town. The Smiths and
Dove endeared themselves to the town by their great liberality and
public spirit, contributing largely of their means to the Seminary,
which has such a wide reputation and is such an honor to the town, as
well as to every object of interest.
The success of John Smith led others of strong character to
engage in mechanical works. About 1830, George L. Davis learned
his trade as machinist in a small shop in the Marland Village. Later
he became the leading man in a machine shop in North Andover,
which grew to large proportions, but not larger than the man himself,
who by his undivided attention to business made it a great success,
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 133
which to-day is known through the land for its mechanical devices.
In later years other industries have been started to remain per-
manently in Andover, and given the town a wide reputation. H. G.
Tyer founded a rubber business in 1856, which he firmly established
and his descendants are now following with great success.
Andover has also produced mechanics who have made their mark.
Many mills throughout the country and the dam across the Merrimack
river at Lawrence, are monuments to the skill and energy of Capt.
Phineas Stevens, and many of the structures in town, firm as the rocks
on which they stand, attest to the mechanical engineering of Jacob
Chickering, who was succeeded by George L. Abbott and W. S. Jen-
kins, men well known to the present generation and under whose
direction, the leading firm of builders in town today were brought up.
One of the oldest and best known of the smaller industries was
started over sixty years ago by Wm. Poor, a native of the town, in Frye
Village, who has just relinquished active business at the age of ninety
years, in the full enjoyment of his health and faculties.
While these men were striving for success in their different
branches of business, there was the same difference of opinion as there
is today in regard to the legislation that would be necessary to enable
this country to compete with other parts of the world, and give means
of carrying on the government. One thing is sure, that the compe-
tition among the different manufacturers, either textile or mechanical,
has been of great benefit to the whole people of this country in giving
them whatever they consume at the lowest possible price.
It is difficult to estimate the influence the men of Andover had
in starting the development of different industries which have gone
forward and made Massachusetts and New England truly manufacturing
communities. Starting in a small way, giving their personal attention
to every detail, their success encouraged men of capital to combine in
corporations and carry on large establishments, which have been the
pride of New England, and contributed largely to her wealth.
The President : The Sons of Andover in the War for
the Union: They carried into the struggle the lessons of
purity, courage, and patriotism imbibed in the homes, the
schools, and the churches of this New England town.
Happily for us " Captain Jack Adams " is with us to-day ;
he shall speak for himself and for his brave comrades of
the days of '61. I present Captain John G. B. Adams.
1^4 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSEttS
CAPT. JOHN G. B. ADAMS
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen : I really cannot understand
why I am here, and yet, if any of you have received a note from
Prof. Churchill, you will understand that the sweetness of that note
will bring a man or a woman anywhere. I am glad to be here and
say a word for the boys who served their country from Andover. I
was not a resident or a citizen of this town, but born on the banks of
the Merrimack a few miles from here, I feel that perhaps I can join
with you in celebrating this day.
The record of Andover in the rebellion is an honorable one. I
find that three hundred and eighty-six men enlisted and were accred-
ited from this town, and that is said to be nearly a hundred less than
really should have been accredited, for Andover responded to every
call made by the President of the United States, and at the close of
the war had nineteen to its credit over and above all demands. It also
expended $30,650, exclusive of state aid, for the men engaged at the
front and the families of those behind. The men of Andover were on
every battle-field in the war. They fought with Sheridan, with Sher-
man, with Grant ; they fought with Farragut and Porter in the navy.
They were the boys of Andover, as they were of every town. They
were not much interested in the war when it began. They had not
done much of the talking on the issues before the war. Most of the
men who had done the talking stayed at home and talked while we
were gone, and we found them talking when we got back. But the
men did a good deal of thinking. We remember that down on the
Peninsula, when the colored man saw the old flag and came into our
ranks, feeling that he would be safe, we had to say to him then that
we were fighting this war to restore the Union as it was, and you
must go back into slavery, for we cannot protect and receive you
under the folds of the star spangled banner, and the boys talked it
over and said we should not succeed in the war, and God knows we
ought not to have succeeded, until Abraham Lincoln signed the eman-
cipation proclamation and made every man free.
Well, then, we sometimes hear it said that the soldiers were a
mercenary horde ; and yet we remember that when the banker was
dickering with the government and demanding two dollars and a half
in greenbacks for one dollar in gold, the soldiers at the front were
250TH ANNIVERSARY I35
receiving actually thirteen dollars a month in greenbacks, equal to six
dollars in gold ; and the men didn't strike. They didn't form labor
organizations or any unions. The only union they formed or belonged
to was the Union of the United States of America.
Well, Lee finally surrendered to Grant, and every hat of the boys
went high in air, and every voice joined in loud huzzas, for we didn't
want to fight, we wanted peace ; and when peace was declared every
Union soldier was delighted and happy. They heard him say to the
rebels, " Take your horses and go home and till the soil ;" and the
Union soldier did not murmur when he got down from his horse, turned
it over to the government, and tramped home. He had no horse to
till the soil furnished him by the government, but he came and rolled
up his sleeves and entered into it with zest when he got back to the old
town of Andover. We were not mercenary then. If we wanted the
old musket we had to point out to our children when we talked about
the war, we paid the government six dollars for it. We came, as I
say, marching home ; we felt that we had done our duty well, and it
can truly be said that we had been as good citizens as we were good
soldiers. In proof of this story I looked up the official record from
the town of Andover, and find in 1865 the following from the chairman
of your selectmen ; " I am glad, as an official, to declare that the men
as a body are better citizens than they were before enlisting .in the
service. Some three hundred and more of our citizens have returned,
and I can hardly point to a single crime since their return." — William
S. Jenkins, Chairman of the Selectmen.
And now we hear to-day many of the people of the younger
generation talking about war with the foreign nations. Mr. Chairman,
you don't hear the boys that know what war means talk about war.
We hear those who sent substitutes issue proclamations and talk
about a war with foreign nations. But God knows we want no more
war in this land. Have arbitration, talk, talk forever, but don't fight
unless the honor of the nation requires it. Don't fight about Con-
gress ; don't fight about a little piece of land that we can buy for $1.50.
We don't want to see our children pass through what we passed
through in the early days.
On the thirtieth of May you will see the little remnant of the army
and navy march through your streets. They will not attract your
attention by their imposing appearance. Their forms will be bent, their
136 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
step slow and tottering. As you see them, don't forget, sir, that when
this nation wanted men to march, to fight, to die if need be, they
responded to the call. Remember, ladies and gentlemen, that they
gave the best years of their lives and the strength and vigor of their
young manhood for the country, and remember them for what they
did and all they dared, remember them to-day.
I love to appear for the comrades on occasions like this. I feel
that every soldier has been honored by the chairman of this meeting,
in giving the soldiers of Andover a place in this program, and I ask
you, as citizens of this dear old town, to be just as true and loyal to
them in their declining years as you have always been in the past.
God knows what the ordeal has been to the men who defended this
nation. I know from testimony in many ways, and I urge you, as the
old boys are going down the vale of life, to love them just as tenderly
until the last man is mustered out.
The President : I give you as our next sentiment, —
The Orator of tlic Day : He has laid his fellow citizens
under lasting obligation for his brilliant and valuable service.
ALBERT POOR, ESQ.
Mr. Chairman and friends : I am the victim of oppression. When
I received the kindly invitation of the selectmen or the citizens of
Andover, something over fourteen months ago, to be their orator upon
this occasion, I immediately applied myself to several dozens of dusty
old volumes which are safely stored away down here in the town house
safe. I read them through with a great deal of care and a great deal
of pleasure, and finally the days of fall came on, when I began to
write, and then apace grew the pages, day after day, until they reached
the somewhat portentous proportions that you have seen upon the
pulpit of the Old South Church to-day and within my hands now.
My impression of them is that of all the stuff I have prepared for this
occasion I read about one-half. I supposed I should have the opportu-
nity of talking to you an indefinite length of time there in the Old
South Church, but last night I happened to meet the gentleman who
presided, and with a knowing twinkle in his eye he said, "Poor, is it
going to be more than an hour 1 " That is my first oppression ; and
then I have still another one. About a month ago, one Sunday night
Prof. Churchill and myself were returning, I suppose from our various
250TH ANNIVERSARY 137
pulpits, and I met him on the train. Said he, "Poor, we shall expect
you to say something after the dinner." "Yes, yes, of course," I said,
"of course." And immediately I tossed aside these valuable manu-
scripts which I had partly finished at that time, and began to apply
myself to the production of an after dinner speech. Last night, I met
Prof. Churchill, and with a very knowing wink in his eye, he said to
me, " Poor, the poetess is going to respond in about a minute and a
half. She has it written out." Oppression number two. And that
is my condition to-day.
But there were really two or three things that I desired to speak
about. First, I wanted to go somewhat more carefully into the cause
of complaint between the two parishes in 1700. They were divided
in about 1709, and the great division came upon the building of a new
church here. I desired also to go somewhat more fully into the gen-
eral topic of this sweet aspect of nature that surrounds us everywhere.
But all that I have passed by. I hoped also to make some suggestions
to you this afternoon in regard to perpetuating the historic sites with
which we are favored. All that I have passed by.
I am very grateful to you all, and now I am coming to the point
where I am going to obey your instructions and in less than a minute
and a half I am going to thank these people for all their references to
my work of to-day. That work was to me one of the most fascinating
in which I have engaged. I have found it so engaging that it was
a pleasure to sit down and write it up. You can imagine how these
sheets grew from one to another with rapid succession, until finally
the tale was told. If there was any merit in that address of this fore-
noon, that merit, like the orator of this occasion, is due to Andover
herself. She herself is her best orator, and that, ladies and gentlemen
who have listened to me this afternoon, is all I have to say. Be hers
the glory and the honor forever, for hers is the source of all the goods
we are enjoying to-day.
The President : You naturally anticipate the next
sentiment. The Poet of the Day. The literary successor of
Anne Bradstreet deserves and wins the admiration of her
grateful fellow citizens. We miss the desired presence of
our poet at this hour, but she has sent to the president of
the Banquet her response in grateful prose.
138 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
MRS. ANNIE SAWYER DOWNS
While I regret that I cannot join personally in the reminiscences
and congratulations of this auspicious occasion, I am yet glad of an
opportunity to thank the town for inviting me to write its anniversary
I have greatly enjoyed doing so. Indeed so constantly during
the last few months have I been associated with our first settlers,
that I seem to have lived with them in their rude houses and shared
their noble though laborious lives, their lofty aims, their self-sacrificing
Dwelling thus upon the loftier aspects of our annals, and noting
with pride how each succeeding generation has carried out the high
purposes of its predecessors, there has grown up in ine a confident
assurance, that, as it has been in the past, so it will be in the future ;
that the Andover of the twentieth century, the Andover which a
hundred years from today will be praised and sung by other lips than
ours, will be honest, strong, fearless, and, above all, true to the prin-
ciples of its founders, those principles which wear forever, " the dew
of their youth."
The President : A Son of Andover sitting in our
presence is a graduate of Phillips Academy, an alumnus of
the Theological Seminary and a member of its Faculty, and
an efldcient member of the Board of Trustees of Abbot
I will call upon Rev. Professor John Phelps Taylor to
respond for Tlie Three bistitntiotis on Andover Hill : They
embody and illustrate the spirit and watchword of Modern
Culture, — Sweetness and Light.
PROFESSOR JOHN PHELPS TAYLOR.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : We have received a
message from one, who represents sweetness and light, if any such
there has been here, in that telegram from President Tucker of Dart-
mouth College. May I be permitted to borrow a story, associated
with him at a recent Dartmouth Commencement, and narrated by
Hon. Mr. Marden, late State Treasurer .' A man was learning to ride
a bicycle, as I learned last summer, and falling forward and backward,
to the North and the South, the East and the West, till at last his
250Ttt ANNIVERSARV 139
wife, loving him no doubt as Anne Bradstreet her illustrious husband,
sympathetically inquired "Dear, can't I hold you on ?" He stopped
and he looked and he spoke and he said " If you are capable of holding
anything, won't you please hold your tongue ? " I will hold my
tongue, Mr. President, after the eloquence, the poetry, the fascinating
charm, the high fellowship, the thrilling motions, the heroic memories,
the sacred inspirations of this golden day — but not till I have re-
sponded to your compelling toast. " Sweetness and Light in Ando-
ver's Three Great Schools."
Here Abbot Academy has the right of way. For the poet is
Abbot's glory today and before me are the faces of its other teachers
from the present Principal, who weds Holyoke and Abbot not less
gracefully than Mrs. Downs and Mr. Downs wed Bradford and Abbot,
like a strain of music, — to that illustrious one whom we all delight to
honor for her character and curriculum, Miss McKeen, whose name is
written on the hearts of a thousand pupils, as legibly as on the walls
of the McKeen rooms in Draper Hall. Yesterday I went to a recita-
tion in Dante. There in the old room sat a Marland, a Holt, a Jack-
son, of the old Andover families. There too seemed to breathe again
the sweetness and light of the Woods, the Stuarts, the Emersons, the
Flaggs, the Goulds, the Fryes, the Abbots, who sat at the shining
desks in the blossoming May almost seventy years ago. Listening I
heard how the Florentines, even in heaven, had to remember their own
splendid town, enflowered in her great deeds. Even so the tablets of
Memorial Hall through Peter Smith the father, and the perfect pro-
cession with Punchard Cadets and Phillips Seniors in cap and gown,
and horse and foot and firemen and trades and bands and national airs
marching after Peter Smith the son, make Andover remembered among
the celestial hosts today. Smith Hall is speaking in the loan collection
of the Daughters of the Revolution. Madame Phillips is lingering in
the last of the tableaux of Alfred Ripley, as if loth to leave the town
hall which has been the scene of her four-fold triumph through Emily
Means. In the world of light I can almost see the sainted Stone and
Farwell, there too are Badger and Jackson, Amos Blanchard, and
Abbot, Elias Cornelius, Samuel Fuller, Lyman Coleman, Bela B.
Edwards, Alpheus Hardy, Nathaniel Swift, Edward Buck, George
L. Davis, Geo. W. Coburn, Rufus S. Frost, old trustees, rejoicing
in the school, which to many a daughter of God and missionary of
140 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
the Cross, was a Paradise below in foretaste of the Paradise above.
Phillips Academy next unveils the scroll of her preceptors. I
recall first the erudite Pearson, and the courtly Pemberton and then
Mark Newman, Exeter's gift to Andover through John Phillips and
Benjamin Abbot, a Greek in personal beautj', sleeping at the Mansion
House, we are told with his pupil, that darling son of Judge and
Madame Phillips, who was torn in the flower of youth from his fond
parents, just as he was about to begin the study of Greek.
Next came John Adams, a Roman of the Romans. He was great
as well as good. Who can forget that keen eye that looked into the
consciences of over one thousand pupils and trained two hundred
preachers of righteousness from 18 10 to 1833, not the least of whom
was his own son the golden-mouthed wide-cultured pastor of Madison
Avenue Presb)'terian Church, New York. His tablet is on our Chapel
walls and his portrait in our Academy Hall. Thanks to him we had
Osgood Johnson. He was Phillips fifth principal and the only
principal before or since of Andover birth. The peerless orator of
this morning has made us proud to link him with the Johnson House
and the Johnson School. The exquisite sobriety of the inscription on
his tomb from the hand of Prof. Park informs me of Kingsley of
Yale, attests the symmetr)' of his character and the finish of his
scholarship. And Osgood Johnson discovered, in a student of Andover
Theological Seminar}-, the great Educator, compact of Roman law and
Hellenic learning, whom Hon. Moses T. Stevens and six thousand
other pupils called Master and for thirty-four years was venerated
not the less under the name of " Uncle Sara." How he would have
fought the forest fires had he been alive on Monday last !
" I understood the structure of the Parthenon because Dr. Taylor
explained it in Andover," said a missionary on Mars Hill. And
when he fell on the threshold of the Academy with the Greek New
Testament in his hand, that snow)- Sunday mom of 1871, a hero
of the light, his torch was taken by his successor. Alas that we
cannot welcome Frederic Tilton here today in person. He, who
adorned whatever he touched, has spoken to us this afternoon, how-
ever, from the lips of his pupil, the fit and felicitous delineator of
Simon Bradstreet, Andover's Founder, Magistrate, Ambassador and
Governor. He has spoken to us also in Abbot, through another
scholar, like-minded with himself, whom he so trained in Newport's
250TH ANNIVERSARY 14I
Rogers School that her pupils have won marks unsurpassed by any in
the land at the Harvard entrance examinations. Tilton found Phillips
classical. Tilton left Phillips classical and mathematical. The eighth
principal, long may he be the last, I dare not praise. Let me exult
with you in the fact that my honored father helped select and elect
him to his great office. Will not Dr. Fiske, President, and Dr. Well-
man, Trustee of the Board of Guardians of Phillips Academy, who
have brought to this celebration the quintessence of the Puritan culture
and the Puritan spirit, accept the thanks of every citizen of Andover
for furnishing the school with a head who is a man of affairs as well
as a man of books, who is a golden clasp between town and gown, who
is the school-boy's ideal of the fire of youth and the wisdom of age.
Not even in Dr. Taylor has Dartmouth made to Andover a nobler gift
than in him who presided as felicitously over the exercises of this
morning as William G. Goldsmith presided over Phillips and Punchard
both, and as Peter Smith Byers would have presided had he not been
called up higher — our Chairman of the Committee of Fifteen, Dr.
Dr. Bancroft is an alumnus of Andover Theological Seminary,
under Prof. Park. So, too, are my colleagues of to-day, my fellow-
students of yesterday, Harris, Ryder, Hincks. Together we enjoyed
the sweetness and light of one whose Lexicon of New Testament
Greek is no fairer monument than the honesty, the courtesy, the mag-
nanimity he carried from Andover to Harvard — Professor Thayer.
The acute philosophical mind of Charles Mead we have lost to Hart-
ford. In return Hartford has loaned to us the brilliant Williston
Walker as our Southworth Lecturer on Congregationalism. Selah
Merrill, explorer, author, consul, patriot is still the Curator of our
museum. William Ropes, after having bestowed a son and a fellow
on the Harvard Divinity School, almost as urbane and accomplished
as himself, remains our Librarian. The old carpenter's shop is gone ;
but the "Carpenter" building, with historic tablet, the old houses over
again, and from the study of Mr. Martin making the Co7igregationalist
a school-house of sweetness and light to the children of America, is
our Necrologist of immortal youth. A McKenzie has been our Lec-
turer on Pastoral Theology, a Blodget, his affluent and inspiring peer,
our Hyde Lecturer on Foreign Missions. Dr. Alden, late Secretary
of the American Board, but once our trustee and professor elect, and
142 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
pastor of a church bearing Phillips' name, has gone to the Mount Zion
above, sealing in his will that consecration of wealth to Christian edu-
cation and Christian missions which his friend and ours, Professor
Gulliver, converted in Andover a Phillips boy, and dying in Andover
a seminary professor, signalized no less when he brought with him
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars into our treasury.
With him then, and with us now, is the honored President of our
Faculty, who has fought a battle for intellectual and religious freedom
as heroically and as successfully as any Bradstreet in the witchcraft or
Frye in the revolutionary days of Andover. And then comes up
before me Samuel Farrar with his rosy cheeks and silver}' locks, a
Harvard scholar and tutor, the trustee of Abbot and Phillips alike,
teacher, treasurer, law}er, librarian, the first president of the Andover
Bank before John Flint, John Taylor, Edward Taylor and Moses
Stevens, the builder of the dormitories of the house from whose win-
dow Madame Phillips could survey the seminar}- she founded till her
eyes were closed in death. I recall him as a clock of punctuality and
a mirror of courtliness. Also how he was present, a venerable man
of eighty-four, at the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Andover
Theological Seminar}' in 1858, when the news of the laying of the
Atlantic cable came and he was addressed almost as Samuel Phillips'
son — six years before he had his wish and lay down to sleep and wake
with God. And shall not posterity remember how it has been granted
us to-day to rise and applaud the Nestor of New England Congrega-
tionalism, the grand old man of our Puritan theolog}', the Emeritus
Abbot Professor, Professor Park, once a youthful bearer of the culture
of Brown and Amherst to this holy hill, now that his foimt of sacred
learning is seven-mouthed like the Nile, Farrar's senior by three years,
and Gladstone's by one, standing. as of old in the pulpit which was his
throne to three schools and three generations, a ver}' benediction of
Heaven on the high noon of his beloved Andover.
And you, Mr. President, my classmate in the Seminary, a son of
Andover by adoption, an alumnus of Phillips, residing on the site of
the first Academy, most accomplished of toast-masters, I cannot wish
a purer honor or more of sweetness and light than to be Professor
elect of Sacred Rhetoric in that chair of the Theological Seminary
for which Professor Phelps held you his favorite candidate, and which
250TH ANNIVERSARY I 43
Professor Park illustrated long after vacating it, by his inimitable
addresses to the girls of Abbot Academy.
Long live these three schools and all the schools of the good old
town, mother and daughter, North Andover and Andover. For this
is the spirit of kindred, this is the spirit of beauty, this is the spirit of
righteousness and of God. Amen.
PROF. CHURCHILL, IN CLOSING
As we part, thinking perhaps of the three hundredth anniversary,
when the sons and daughters of Andover shall assemble on a similar
occasion to this, happy is the thought that many of the boys and girls
present to-day will participate in that far distant scene. Then, as
now, may the sons and daughters of Andover look backward with
exultation and thanksgiving, and forward with confidence and antici-
pation. Let us remind ourselves, as we separate, of the words of one
of Andover's most illustrious kinsmen, Wendell Phillips : " To be as
good as our fathers, we must be better." Imitation is not discipleship.
Let us part, as we began the festivities of the afternoon, by singing a
song : " Auld Lang Syne."
144 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
LOAN COLLECTION AND HISTORIC SITES
The follo^^•ing interesting report of this remarkable feature
of the celebration is submitted for the committee by Mrs.
Salome J. Marland, the secretan,- of the Loan Collection Com-
mittee. An interesting supplement to this report \vi\\ be found
in the complete catalogue of the collection issued and sold at
the time of the celebration, in which is published a full list of
articles exhibited, except as noted in this report.
The Sub-Committee on Loan Collection and Historic Sites
deemed it a privilege to present to the citizens of Andover e\'idences
of its pre-historic existence ; Indian relics, war curiosities, industrial
methods, literary and educational activities, religious growth, and
more than all portraits and pictures, wnth the mode and manner of
living, of the men and women who made " Andover everywhere and
always, first, last, — the manly, straightforward, sober, patriotic. New
With the catalogue showing in detail about three-quarters of the
articles exhibited, it is not necessar}- to speak individually of each
phase of the collection, but as so many articles were brought to the
hall after the catalogue had gone to press, it seemed wise to repeat in
this official report the valuable data under " Portraits and Pictures of
Andover Men and Women ; Old Houses and Sites," and also give a
general plan of the exhibit with names of those contributing articles.
Those comparing the catalogue with this account wiU understand
that this statement explains any discrepancies.
The Punchard School HaU was obtained and every facility for
work granted by the school Board, Trustees and Faculty. The hall
entrance was decorated with flags and the society colors of the local
chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution.
The main room 45 x 60 with the stage 20 x 30 was arranged as
35OTH ANNIVERSARY I45
The " Committee of Co-operation from North Andover, " Hon.
VVm. J. Dale, Jr., Miss Sarah Kittredge, Mrs. Moses T. Stevens and
Mr. John O. Loring, assumed the whole responsibility of " An Ancient
Parlor " which occupied the stage. The ante-rooms on either side
g^ve access to this room. One of the incidents of the opening after-
noon, not soon to be forgotten, was the singing of " Auld Lang S)Tie "
by the audience, w^th the accompaniment of Madame Kittredge's
Clementini piano brought to Andover early in the present century.
The walls of the stage were hung with the p>ortraits of noted
men and women of North Parish. The other portraits were hung in
the main hall. Only two pictures of li\'ing jjeople were solicited —
Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Andover's most celebrated citizen
of today, Prof. Edwards A. Park, D. D., LL. D., who honored the
exhibit by a personal visit At the right of the stage was Mr. Warren
F. Draper's collection of Andover publications, over three hundred in
number exclusive of pamphlets, 1813 to 1888 ; show cases containing
\'aluable manuscripts, rare books, autographs, and portions of Mr.
Paul B. Folansbee's collection of pre-bistoric relics. On the left of
the stage stood an ancient loom, with a quilt just completed, as
it were, in it. Beyond this was such antique furniture as it was possi-
ble to display. The rear of the hall was so di\nded that the two cor-
ners were fitted up, the one as a kitchen, and the other as a bedroom.
Articles for these rooms were jointly contributed by North Andover
and Andover. Between these was the stage, 1 2 x 20, where Mrs.
L. R Mason and Mrs. Catherine Allen spun flax and wool into
yam. A memento of this work will be deposited in the Cornell Art
and Historic Collection. Above them hung the portraits of the
founders of the present manufacturing interest of Andover. In the
centre were double show cases in which were exhibited samplers, china,
silver, war relics, clothing, etc. In all some one hundred feet of cases
were required to properly protect fragile articles. Many costumes of
" ye ancient stj'les " were worn by young ladies from North Andover
and Andover of which the committee have no record.
So great was the interest in the collection and so large the atten-
dance that at the request of leading citizens it continued of>en until
Saturday night. Much of the success of the collection was due to the
liberal appropriation of three hundred dollars of the Committee of
146 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
PORTRAITS AND PICTURES OF ANDOVER
MEN AND WOMEN.
DEACON ALBERT ABBOTT.
1810—82. Kept the " Hill Store " nearly fifty years.
MRS. ABBY HALE (CUTLER) ABBOTT.
1816 — 94. Mr. and Mrs. Abbott, as well as their children, were very
musical. He was leader of the choir of the South Church for many
Courtesy of the Family.
HON. ALFRED A. ABBOTT.
1820 — 84. Son of Dea. Amos Abbott. Lawyer in Peabody. Repre-
sentative; senator; district attorney ; clerk of courts for Essex County.
Courtesy of the Family.
1799 — 1869. Business man.
DANIEL P. ABBOT.
1803 — 81. Farmer.
1808 — 72. Physician, Canton, Mass.
Nathan F. Abbott.
Ezra Lincoln Abbot.
GEORGE L. ABBOTT.
1 82 1 — 89. Contractor and builder ; town officer.
Miss Ellen J. Abbott.
1772 — 1862. Harvard College, 1796. Importer and trader. Portrait
painted in Canton, China, 1805, when he was a supercargo there on a
Miss Charlotte S. Abbot.
CAPTAIN JOB ABBOT.
1782 — 1859. Farmer.
MRS. LUCY (CHANDLER) ABBOT.
1785 — 1872. Wife of Captain Job Abbot.
Mrs. Nathan B. Abbott.
1812^81. Farmer; town officer.
Ezra Lincoln Abbot.
MRS. NANCY (FLINT) ABBOTT.
1777 — 1851. Wife of Enoch Abbott.
Mrs. Sophronia (Abbott) Gray.
aSOTH ANNIVERSARY I47
NATHAN B. ABBOTT.
1 816 — 85. Farmer; son of Captain Job Abbot.
Mrs. Nathan B. Abbott.
HON. JOHN AIKEN.
1797 — 1867. Treasurer of manufacturing corporations; trustee of
Mrs. George Ripley.
REV. MILTON BADGER, D.D.
1800 — 73. Pastor of South church 1S28 — 1835. Connected with
the American Home Missionary Society from that time until 1869.
CAPTAIN JOSHUA BALLARD.
1785 — 71. Town officer.
PHEBE (ABBOT) BALLARD.
1788 — 1870. Wife of Captain Joshua Ballard.
Miss Mary A. Ballard.
DEACON AMOS BLANCHARD.
1773 — 1847. Came to Andover (from Wilton, N. H.) as clerk in Judge
Phillips's store ; wrote many of the early Academy records ; first
cashier of Andover Bank (1826 — ^43); many years prominent officer in
South Church ; trustee of Abbot Academy ; father of Dr. Amos
Blanchard of Lowell.
i8i I — 75. For many years proprietor of the periodical store.
Mrs. Frank E. Gleason.
HENRY A. BODWELL.
1821 — 91. Business man. For many years proprietor of the Man-
Mrs. Henry A. Bodwell.
1798— 1 861. Farmer.
MRS. FANNIE (HYDE) BOUTWELL.
1803—73. Wife of George Boutwell.
Samuel H. Boutwell.
J. PUTNAM BRADLEE.
1817 — 87. Woolen manufacturer; owner of Ballard Vale Mills;
founder of Bradlee Library and in many other ways benefactor of
Trustees of the J. P. Bradlee Estate.
GOV. SIMON BRADSTREET with autograph.
1603 — 97. The most prominent of the early settlers. His wife,
Anne Dudley Bradstreet (161 1 — 1658) was the first woman poet of
Hollis R. Bailey, Cambridge.
CAPTAIN AND MRS. BRITT.
Taken in England before 1690. Ancestors of Mrs. William Stickney,
daughter of Peter Young.
148 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
RT. REV. PHILLIPS BROOKS, D.D., S.T.D.
183s — 93. Bishop of Massachusetts. Owned the Phillips House in
North Andover, and was a summer resident there many years.
Girls' Friendly Society, Christ Church, Andover.
183 1 — 88. Merchant in New York. Benefactor of Christ church
parish, PhilUps Academy, Memorial Hall Library, and other Andover
Mrs. John Byers.
PETER SMITH BYERS, A.M.
1827 — 56. Instructor at Phillips Academy, 1851 — 53. At the time of
his death principal elect of the Punchard School.
Trustees of Phillips Academy.
1804 — 95. Farmer; representative.
ISAAC S. CARRUTH.
1840 — 82. Merchant; 43rd Mass. Regiment, Civil War.
Mrs. Isaac S. Carruth.
GENERAL SUMNER CARRUTH.
1834 — 92. First Mass. Regiment, 1861 ; Colonel 35th Mass. Regiment,
1861 ; Brev. Brig. General, 1865.
Miss Minnie Carruth.
DEACON HOLBROOK CHANDLER.
1820 — 86. Farmer. Superintendent of PhiUips Academy Farm and
MARGARET (BURROWS) CHANDLER.
1820 — 91. Wife of Holbrook Chandler.
Miss Ada B. Chandler.
1808 — 72. Fanner; town officer.
A native of Andover.
Mrs. Peter D. Smith.
Mrs. Darius Richardson.
1806 — 87. Builder; piano manufacturer.
Courtesy of the Family.
181 1 — 67. Contractor and builder.
Mrs. John H. Dean.
JOSIAH. B. CLOUGH.
1804 — 65. Printer.
DORCAS (BUTTERFIELD) CLOUGH.
1801—87. Wife of Josiah B. Clough.
Miss Elizabeth Clough.
JAMES H. COCHRANE.
1815 — 95. Blacksmith in Punchard Avenue many years.
Mrs. James H. Cochrane.
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 149
FRANCIS COGSWELL, ESQ.
1800 — 80. President of Boston & Maine Railroad; Overseer of Har-
vard College ; held many other offices of trust.
Thomas M. Cogswell, Lawrence.
1830 — 92. Businessman; representative; founder of Cornell scholar-
ships in Abbot and Phillips Academies ; founder of Art and Historical
Collection in Memorial Hall Library, and donor of the Cornell Fuel
Fund for the poor.
Mrs. Frank E. Gleason.
JOHN DOVE, ESQ.
1805 — 76. With John and Peter Smith in the firm of Smith & Dove,
flax manufacturers, and like them prominent for public benefactions.
George W. W. Dove.
JAMES S. EATON.
i8i6 — 65. Instructor in Phillips Academy eighteen years; author of
Eaton's series of Mathematics.
George T. Eaton.
JOHN P. FARNUM.
1822 — 60. Mason and contractor.
Mrs. Darius Richardson.
CAPTAIN TIMOTHY FLAGG.
1792 — 1833, Publisher. Soldier in War of 181 2.
Mrs. Luther H. Sheldon.
1792 — 1873. President of Andover National Bank; treasurer of
LYDIA (ABBOT) FLINT.
1797— 1847. Wife of John Flint.
John H. Flint.
HON. GEORGE FOSTER.
1810 — 85. Held town offices many years, having been moderator of
town meeting forty-five times ; representative and senator.
George IV. Foster.
MOSES FOSTER, ESQ.
1821 — 95. Lawyer; cashier of Andover National Bank nearly forty
Mrs. Moses Foster.
1758 — 1843. Kept a private school for boys many years, and univer-
sally known as " Master Billy Foster."
Francis H. Foster.
i8o9 — 84. Manufacturer; held many offices of trust.
Charles H. Frye.
ISAAC E. GIDDINGS.
1840 — 76. Manufacturer.
Miss H. Elizabeth Giddings.
DEACON ABRAHAM J. GOULD.
1798 — 1868. Publisher. George Gould.
ISO ANDOVER, MASSACHUSEtTS
SAMUEL GRAY, ESQ.
1803 — 80. Teacher ; afterwards secretary and president of the
Merrimack Mutual Fire Insurance Company.
NATHAN W. HAZEN, ESQ.
1801 — 87. Lawyer.
George H. Poor.
1784 — 1861. Carpenter; connected with the building of Andover
educational institutions from 1809.
MRS. MARY (CHANDLER) HIDDEN.
1786—1855. Wife of David Hidden.
David I. C. Hidden*
SOLOMON H. HIGGINS.
1803 — 62. Merchant.
MRS. PHEBE H. (OSGOOD) HIGGINS.
1805 — 92. Wife of Solomon H. Higgins.
Mrs. Nathaniel J. Bartlett.
CAPTAIN JOSEPH HOLT.
1780 — 1860. Carpenter.
MRS. LYDIA (JONES) HOLT.
1780 — 1858. Wife of Captain Joseph Holt.
Mrs. Brainerd Cummings.
JOSEPH S. HOLT.
1808 — 92. Printer. Connected for many years with the American
Bible Society, New York City.
MRS. LUCY (ABBOT) HOLT.
i8i 1—88. Wife of Joseph S. Holt.
Mrs. Charles C. Blunt.
DEACON SOLOMON HOLT.
1799 — 1883. Farmer.
MRS. PHEBE (ABBOTT) HOLT.
1802 — 72. Wife of Deacon Solomon Holt.
E. Francis Holt.
REV. SAMUEL C. JACKSON, D.D.
1802 — 78. Pastor of West Parish Church, 1827 — 50. Acting State
Librarian, 1849 — 72.
William T. Jackson.
1795 — 1878. Farmer; town officer; leader in the anti-slavery move-
Mrs. James P. Butterfield.
SAMUEL K. JOHNSON.
1 82 1 — 91. Expressman to Boston many years.
James E. Johnson.
250TH ANNIVERSARY -" 15I
SAMUEL JOHNSON, M.D.
1800 — 54. Physician in Andover from 1825 until his death.
MRS. SUSANNA (BARKER) JOHNSON.
1806 — 79. Wife of Dr. Samuel Johnson.
MISS ELIZABETH JOHNSON.
1808 — 91. Sister of Dr. Johnson.
MARY (JOHNSON) SWAIN.
1808 — 93. Wife of Otis Swain of Wakefield.
While at Bradford Academy, 1825.
ELIZA (BARKER) DWIGHT.
Wife of Rev. H. G. O. Dwight. She died of cholera in Constantinople
while a missionary, 1837.
MARY ELIZABETH (JOHNSON) HERSEY.
1835 — 95. Wife of Nathan Hersey of Spencer.
The last three are silhouettes.
Mrs. John C. Sears.
1772 — 1849. Woolen manufacturer.
Courtesy of Amasa Clarke, Brook line, Mass.
1802 — 65. Woolen manufacturer. (Photograph).
Courtesy of Lucretia D. Marland, Chicago, III.
WILLIAM SYKES MARLAND.
1808 — 47. Woolen manufacturer. (Miniature).
Mrs. William S. Marland.
WILLIAM G. MEANS.
1815 — 94. Manufacturer. Founder of the Means prizes for original
declamation in Phillips Academy.
James Means, Boston.
SAMUEL MERRILL, ESQ.
1786 — 1869. Lawyer. President for forty-one years of the
Merrimack Mutual Fire Insurance Company.
PHEBE FULLER McKEEN.
1 83 1 — 80. First assistant in Abbot Academy. 1859 — 80.
Miss Philena McKeen.
HON. MARCUS MORTON, LL. D.
1819 — 91. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts.
George H. Poor.
HON. SAMUEL OSGOOD.
1748 — 181 3. Fifth in descent from John Osgood of Andover, England ;
the second settler of Andover, Mass., and gave it its name. First Post-
master General of the United States, 1790.
William Henry Wardwell, Brookline.*
152 AXDOTKR, MASSACHUSETTS
PROF. EDWARDS A. PARK, D.D., LL.D.
Bom 180S. Professor in Andover Tbdogkal Seminaiy from 18361
PROF. AUSTIN PHELPS, D. D.
1820 — 90W Professor in Andover Theological Seminary tfairtyKMK
MRS. ELIZABETH (STUART) PHELPS.
1815—52. Wife of Pnrfessor Pbe^
Mrs. Pbe^ was a gifted writer. The older of tfie two tjuldrcn in the
picture became Elizabedi Stnart Phelps Ward, the younger tlie la-
mented Moses Stnart Phelps of Smith Ctdl^e.
(Copies <d DagnerreoUpes).
Mrs. Herbert D. (^EUsmbeA Stmart"^ Plulps) Ward.
HON. JOHN PHILLIPS, LL.D.
1719—95. With his brother, Hon. Samoel PhiDips, and his nephew.
Judge Samael Phillips, foonder of PhiDqK Academy and <Mie of its
trustees: founder of Phillips Exeter Academy.
Mrs. Serau F. AUaU.
COL. JOHN PHILLIPS.
1776 — 1820. With his mother, Phodie Foocnift Phillips, foonder oC
the Andover Theological Semfaiary.
MRS. LYDIA (GORHAM) PHILUPS.
1779—1856. Wife of CoL John Phillips.
HIS HONOR SAMUEL PHILLIPS, LL. D.
1752 — 1802. The most distinguished citizai of Andover. At b^ls death
lientenant-Govemar of Massadinsetts.
MRS. PHOEBE FOXCROFT PHILLIPS.
1743 — 1812. Wife of His Honor Samod PhiD^js.
Mr. WUUam Gn^ Brotts^ The Mamse, Nertk Andgver.
DEACON DANIEL POOR.
1740 — 1814. He built the hoose DOW owned by Geo. H. Torr.
A pto^ieroas farmer.
MRS. HANNAH (FRYE) POOR.
1744 — 1824. Wife of Daniel Poor. A tfrectdearpndant<rfJohn Fr3re,
Mtj. AmiMsa Clarke, BrMJlime, Mats.
1802 — 79. Merchant.
1811 — 89. Whedwright. ilr:. Jctuit-kjr. Fl-ct.
BENJAMIN HANOVER PUNCHARD.
1799 — 1850. Woolen mannfJactnrer; founder of the Pondiard Free
Tnutees ef Ae Pmuhmrd Free SdaaL
MAJOR JOSEPH RICE.
1792 — 1867. Whedwrigfat; town officer.
NmAmm F. AUaO.
250TM aijnivErsary ■ 153
JAMES A. ROBERTS.
1824 — 85. Merchant
Miss Mary Kate Roberts.
DR. EASTMAN SANBORN.
1800 — 59. Dentist.
MRS. MARY C. L. (GREGORY) SANBORN.
1807 — 83. Wife of Dr. Sanborn.
FRANCIS GREGORY SANBORN.
1838 — 84. An eminent naturalist and specialist in entomology.
(Painted by Miss Peters.)
Miss E. M. E. Sanborn and Miss C. H. Ada Sanborn.
CAPTAIN JOSEPH SHATTUCK.
1794 — 1875. Fanner.
Joseph Shattuck, Lawrence, Mass.
1822 — 81. Woolen manufacturer; connected with Ballard Vale Mills.
Trustees of Bradlee Estate.
ANDREW B. STIMPSON.
1798 — 1850. Merchant.
MRS. MARY A. (WARREN) STIMPSON.
1807 — 88. Wife of Andrew B. Stimpson.
Henry A. Hay ward.
PROF. CALVIN E. STOWE, D. D.
1802 — 86. Professor in Andover Theological Seminary, 1S52 to 1864.
MRS. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.*
181 2 — 96. Wife of Prof. Calvin E. Stowe. Author of " Uncle Tom's
Trustees of Abbot Academy.
DEACON JOHN SMITH.
Born in Brechin, Scotland, May 19, 1796. Died in Andover, Feb. 25,
1886. Manufacturer in Andover, 1824. Distinguished for his public
spirit and large benefactions.
DEACON JOHN SMITH— IN 1830.
Painted by Moses Cole.
Joseph IV. Smith.
DEACON PETER SMITH.
1802 — 80. Flax and twine manufacturer. Like his brother, noted for
his interest in public affairs and large benevolence. Trustee of Phil-
lips and Abbot Academies.
Peter D. Smith.
MRS. JANET (MIDDLETON) SMITH.
1762 — 1839. Mother of James, John and Peter Smith.
Joseph W. Smith.
*Died in Hartford, Ct., 1897, and buried in Andover.
154 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
1805 — 78. Merchant; president of Savings Bank ; treasurer of Abbot
From the Family.
DEACON EDWARD TAYLOR.
1 8 1 7 — 93. Town officer ; representative ; treasurer of Phillips Academy.
Cecil F. P. Bancroft.
REV. JOHN L. TAYLOR, D.D.
181 1 — 84. Pastor of the South Church, 1839 — 52 ; treasurer of Phillips
Academy, 1852 — 68; professor in Theological Seminary, 1868 — 79.
John Phelps Taylor.
SAMUEL HARVEY TAYLOR, LL.D.
1807 — 71. Principal of Phillips Academy, 1837 — 71.
Trustees of Phillips Academy.
HENRY GEORGE TYER.
1812 — 82. Founder of the Tyer Rubber Company.
Horace H. Tyer.
She once kept a famous variety store on the corner of Salem and Por-
ter Streets. (Silhouette.)
David I. C. Hidden.
SAMUEL GEORGE VALPEY.
1819 — 63. Businessman. *
MRS. SARAH C. (HOLT) VALPEY.
1821 — 64. Wife of Samuel C. Valpey.
Ezra H. Valpey.
JOHN VAN INGEN AND DAUGHTER.
Formerly lived in the house occupied by Judge Morton; went to Hono-
lulu in 1852; was United States Consul to Valparaiso, Chile, for
several years. (Photograph.)
Miss E. M. E. Sanborn, M. D.
CAPTAIN EDWARD WEST.
1759 — 1851. Father-in-law of Dea. Amos Abbott. Came from Salem
and resided in Andover many years in the old Dea. Isaac Abbot
house, Elm Street.
BURNHAM S. WHITE.
181 7 — 1889. Local expressman for many years.
Mrs. Burnham S. White.
1809 — 78. Farmer.
MRS. ELIZABETH (POOR) WORTHLEY.
1 810 — 91. Wife of Luke Worthley.
From the Family.
iSOTH ANNIVERSARY t^^
The educational institutions and Memorial Hall Library were
open to all throughout the week of the two hundred and fiftieth
anniversary and the following portraits were on exhibition :
Dates preceding names denote the period of connection with the institutions.
®peneA 1778. IncorporateA 1780.
Present Building Erected 1865.
REV. SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 1690— 1771.
1778—1790 HON. SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 1717— 1790. Founder and Trustee.
1778— 1790 HON. JOHN PHILLIPS, LL.D. 1719— 1795. Founder and Trustee.
1778— 1804 HON. WILLIAM PHILLIPS. 1722— 1804. Donor and Trustee.
1778— 1802 HIS HONOR SAMUEL PHILLIPS, LL.D. 1752—1802. The
inceptor of the movement to establish the Academy; Donor and
1791— 1827 HIS HONOR WILLIAM PHILLIPS. 1750—1827. Donor and
JOHN C. PHILLIPS. Founder Latin professorship.
1778— 1786 PRINCIPAL ELIPHALET PEARSON, LL.D. 1752— 1826.
1786— 1795 PRINCIPAL EBENEZER PEMBERTON, LL.D. 1746— 1835.
1795— 1810 PRINCIPAL MARK NEWMAN, M.A. 1772— 1859.
1810— 1833 PRINCIPAL JOHN ADAMS, LL.D. 1772— 1863.
1833— 1837 PRINCIPAL OSGOOD JOHNSON, M.A. 1803— 1837.
1837—1871 PRINCIPAL SAMUEL H. TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D. 1807— 1871.
1871— 1873 PRINCIPAL FREDERIC W. TILTON, M.A.
1873— PRINCIPAL CECIL F. P. BANCROFT, LL.D. Born 1839.
1847— 1865 JAMES S. EATON. 1816— 1865. Instructor.
1865— 1881 PROF. GEORGE C. MERRILL. 18 — 1881. George Peabody
1851—1853 PETER SMITH BYERS. 1827— 1856. Instructor.
1785 JOHN T. KIRKLAND, D.D., LL.D. 1770— 1840. Student. Presi-
dent of Harvard College.
156 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
1812 HON. SAMUEL WILLISTON. 1795— 1874. Student
1825 OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. 1809—1895. Student
1821 NATHANIEL P. WILLIS. 1806— 1867. Student
1816— 1817 HON. GEORGE P. MARSH. 1801— 1882. Student
1802— 1805 SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, LL.D. 1791— 1872. Student Inventor
of the electric telegraph.
1813— 1820 REV. LEONARD WOODS, JR., D.D., LL.D. 1807— 1878. Student
President of Bowdoin College.
1826 REV. RAY PALMER, D.D. 1808—1887. Student. Visitor.
1826 PROF. HORATIO B. HACKETT. 1808—1875. Student
1858— 1885 HON. ALPHEUS HARDY. 181 5— 1887. Trustee. (Bust by
REV. W. M. ROGERS, D.D. 1806— 1851. Student
1827— 1843 HON. WILLIAM B. BANISTER. 1773— 1853. Trustee and
HON. FREDERICK SMYTH. Born 1819. Student Benefactor.
HON. GEORGE PEABODY. 1795— 1869. Founder of the Pea-
1858 MAJOR GENERAL W. F. BARTLETT. 1840— 1876. Student
1865— 1867 REV. JOSEPH H. NEESIMA, D.D., LL.D. 1843—1889. Student
1862 LIEUTENANT SAMUEL H. THOMPSON. Student Died in
the War of the Rebellion.
CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR. (Copy of the Ludovisi bust.)
SAMUEL H. TAYLOR, LL.D. (Bust by Launt Thompson.)
ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
Brechin Hall Library.
MADAM PHOEBE FOXCROFT PHILLIPS. 1743 — 1812.
COL. JOHN PHILLIPS. 1776— 1820. Founder.
SAMUEL ABBOT, ESQ. 1730—1812. Founder.
HON. WILLIAM BARTLET. 1748— 1841. Associate Founder.
MOSES BROWN, ESQ. 1742— 1827, Associate Founder.
Note. It is deeply regretted that the institution has no portrait of Hon. John
Norris, 1751 — 1808, the other associate ft inder
2SOTH ANNIVERSARY 157
1808—1809 PROF. ELIPHALET PEARSON, LL.D, 1752—1826.
1808— 1846 PROF. LEONARD WOODS, D.D, 1774— 1854. Bust and por-
1809— 181 1 PROF. EDWARD DORR GRIFFIN, D.D. 1770— 1837.
1810— 1848 PROF. MOSES STUART, M.A. 1780—1852.
1829— 1853 PROF. RALPH EMERSON, D.D. 1787— 1863.
1836— PROF. EDWARDS AMASA PARK, D.D., LL.D. Born 1808.
Busts by Jackson and Launt Thompson.
1837— 1852 PROF. BELA BATES EDWARDS, D.D. 1802-1852.
1848—1890 PROF. AUSTIN PHELPS, D.D. 1820— 1890.
1852—1879 PROF. JOHN LORD TAYLOR, D.D iSii— 1884. Also Pastor
of the South Church and Treasurer of Phillips Academy.
MRS. CAROLINE (PHELPS) TAYLOR. 1S16— 1868. Wife of
1807—1844 SAMUEL FARRAR, M.A. 1773— 1864. Librarian and Treasurer.
1826—1837 HON. WILLIAM REED. 1777— 1837. Visitor and Benefactor.
1831— 1850 HIS HONOR SAMUEL T. ARMSTRONG. Trustee.
HENRY WINKLEY. Benefactor.
JOHN SMITH. Benefactor.
JOHN DOVE. Benefactor.
1870— 1880 PETER SMITH. Trustee and Benefactor. The Messrs. Smith and
Dove, in addition to other gifts built Brechin Hall, named in honor
of their native town.
REV. JOSHUA HUNTINGTON. Pastor of Old South Church,
Boston, 1808 — 1819.
SAMUEL A. HITCHCOCK. Benefactor.
MRS. SARAH ABBOT. Wife of Nathaniel Abbot and daughter of
•George Abbot. 1762 — 1848. Founder.
1828—1878 REV. SAMUEL C. JACKSON, D. D. 1802—1878. Trustee.
1859— 1892 MISS PHILENA McKEEN. Born 1822. Principal.
1859—1880 MISS PHEBE FULLER McKEEN. 1831—1880. First Asssistant.
1851— PROF. EDWARDS A. PARK, D. D., LL. D. Born 1808. Trustee.
1851—1878 NATHANIEL SWIFT, ESQ. 1805— 1878. Trustee and Treasurer.
158 AXDOTER, MASSACHUSETTS
PUNCHARD FREE SCHOOL
Si "'WH—P'^* Kai MMMif i8$i. BuKJuiiD^ 18GB; K— nm* at tsk Kuvmuk or thb Xowv, iS/i.
BENJAMIN HANO\^R PUNCHARD. 1799— 185a Foonder.
1858— 1870 > PRINCIPAL WILLIAM GLEASON GOLDSMITH, M. A- Bom
1871 — 1885 J 1832.
MEMORIAL HALL LIBRARY
^6t■M^5fac^ ISn. 9pata 1S73.
HON. AMOS ABBOT. 1786— 186S. Merchant; State Rq>resenta-
tive: State Senator; Member of Congress, Fefamarj 15, 1844, to
March 3. 1849.
HOBART CL.\RKE, ESQ. 1780— 1870^ Lavjer; Postmaster; and
WALTER L RAYMOND. 1846—1864. Stodtait. Died as a pris-
oner of war at Salisbury, N. C, on Christmas Dar.
JOHN SMITH, ESQ. 1796—18861 Promoter and bugest bendEac-
tor of Memorial Hall ^lid Libiaiy.
MEMORIAL TABLET. Widi names of die fif^4wo soldiers who
died durinf the War of the RebdlioD. 1861 — 1865.
Dates Show Dcratiox of Pastorate.
NORTH PARISH. "The Church at Andover."
REV. JOHN WOODBRIDGE. 1645— 1647.
REV. FRANCIS DANE. 1648—1697.
REV. THOMAS BARNARD. 1682— 171&
REV. JOHN BARNARD. 1719— 1757.
250TH ANNIVERSARY I 59
REV. WILLIAM SYMMES, D. D. 1758— 1807.
REV. BAILEY LORING. 1810—1850.
REV. FRANCIS C. WILLIAMS. 1850— 1856,
REV. CHARLES C. VINAL. 1857—1870.
REV. JOHN H. CLIFFORD. 1871— 1883.
REV. CHARLES NOYES. 1884—
Church Buildings erected 1645, 1669, 1709. These were probably located
near the old burying ground; 1753, 1836 at present location. Parsonage erected
during Mr. Vinal's pastorate, through the generosity of William Johnson, Esq.,
destroyed by fire 1870. Rebuilt 1871.
SOUTH PARISH CHURCH
®rgani3e^ October 17, t7tt.
REV. SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 1711— 1771.
REV. JONATHAN FRENCH. 1772— 1809.
REV. JUSTIN EDWARDS, D. D. 1812— 1827.
REV. MILTON BADGER, D. D. 1828— 1835.
REV. LORENZO L. LANGSTROTH, 1838— 1839.
REV. JOHN L. TAYLOR, D. D. 1839— 1852.
REV. CHARLES SMITH. 1852— 1853.
REV. GEORGE MOOAR. 1855— 1861.
REV. CHARLES SMITH. 1861— 1876.
REV. JAMES H. LAIRD. 1877— 1883.
REV. JOHN J. BLAIR. 1884— 1892.
REV. FRANK R. SHIPMAN. 1893—
Church Buildings erected 1719, 1734, 1789, i860. Parsonage 1709, sold
about 181 1.
WEST PARISH CHURCH
©rganijes Becember 5, 1826.
REV. SAMUEL C. JACKSON, D. D. 1827—1850.
REV. CHARLES H. PIERCE. 1850—1855.
l6o ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
REV. JAMES H. MERRILL. 1856—1879.
REV. AUSTIN H. BURR. 1880— 1885
REV. FREDERIC W. GREENE. 1885—1895.
REV. ROBERT A. MACFADDEN. 1896—
Church building erected 1826. Parsonage built by Dr. Jackson and after-
wards bought by the parish.
TRINITARIAN CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
^ganijeb 9«ptembet 3, 1834.
REV. JESSE PAGE. 1835— 1843.
REV. WILLIAM T. BRIGGS. 1846—1855.
REV. LEVI H. COBB. 1857— 1864.
REV. BENJAMIN F. HAMILTON. 1865— 1871.
REV. RUFUS C. FLAGG. 1872— 1877.
REV. GEORGE PIERCE. 1878— 1881.
REV. H. H. LEAVITT. 1882—1893.
REV. HENRY E. BARNES, D. D. 1893—
First church building at the Centre erected 1834; the second, at present
location, Machine shop village, 1865. Parsonage presented to the society by
Hon. George L. Davis, 1873.
CHRIST CHURCH, ANDOVER
®cgamje& Bugust e, t835.
REV. SAMUEL FULLER, D. D. 1837— 1843.
REV. GEORGE PACKARD, D. D. (Minister). 1843— 1845.
REV. HENRY WATERMAN. 1845— 1849.
REV. SAMUEL FULLER, D. D. 1849— 1859.
REV. BENJAMIN B. BABBITT. 1860—1868.
REV. JAMES THOMSON. 1869— 1874.
REV. MALCOLM DOUGLAS, D. D. 1875— 1884.
35OTH ANNIVERSARY 161
REV. LEVERETT BRADLEY. 1884—1888.
REV. FREDERIC PALMER. 1888—
Church erected 1837; burned 1886; rebuilt 18S6 by Mr. John Byers"in
memory of his parents and brother." Rectory erected and given by Mr.
Abraham Marland and family in 1845.
FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
®T9anijeA /Da:s 7, 1846.
REV. ELIJAH C. WINCHESTER. 1S46— 1848.
REV. SHERLOCK BRISTOL. 1848— 1849.
REV. WILLIAM B. BROWN. 1850—1855.
REV. CALEB FISHER. 1855— 1859.
REV. STEPHEN C. LEONARD. 1859— 1865.
REV. JAMES P. LANE. 1866— 1870.
REV. EDWARD S. WILLIAMS. 1870—1872.
REV. GEORGE F. WRIGHT. 1872— 1881.
REV. FRANK BARROWS MAKEPEACE. 1S81— r888.
REV. FREDERIC A. WILSON. 1889—
Church building (formerly the Methodist Episcopal church located on Main
Street, near Morton) removed to present location 1S50 by John Smith who pre-
sented it with other property to the church in 1859. Parsonage built 1855.
ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH
Bn&over iBiesion commenceb bs 1Rev, fatbet ®'2)onnell, 1850.
REV. MICHAEL GALLAGHER, O. S. A. 1862— 1869.
REV. AMBROSE A. MULLEN, O. S. A. 1869—1876.
REV. MAURICE J. MURPHY, O. S. A. 1876— 1880.
REV. J. J. RYAN, O. S. A. 1880—1894.
REV. THOMAS A. FIELD, O. S. A. 1894—
Church on Central Street, 1852; Essex Street, 1879; burned 1894; rebuilt
1895. Rectory purchased 1870; removed to site of burned church, 1895.
The church in Ballardvale was built in 1876, and that of Wilmington in
1880, both of which are mission churches attended from Andover.
1 62 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
All of the above churches resjxjnded to the request for pictures of pastors an \
buildings so far as was jxjssible. Other churches in Andover are or were : Church
of the Theological Seminar)-, established 1816; reorganized, 1865. This church has
as pastors the Professors of the Seminar)-.
Methodist Episcopal Church, organized 1829; disbanded 1841.
Baptist Church, organized Oct. 3, 1832.
Universalist Society-, organized Nov. 15, 1837. Church built 1838. Services
were continued until 1S65. In 1879 ^^7 were renewed for a short time.
Methodist Episcopal Church (North Andover) organized 1845.
Emanuel Church (Ballardvale) 1846 — 1849: discontinued.
Union Congregational Church, Ballardvale; organized 1850.
Methodist Episcopal Church, Ballardvale; organized 1850.
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
ABBOTT, Family of Albert
ABBOTT, Family of Alfred A.
ABBOTT, Dr. and Mrs. Charles E. (Frances Whipple)
ABBOTT, Miss Charlotte Helen
ABBOT, Miss Charlotte S.
ABBOTT, Miss Ellen J.
ABBOTT, Mrs. Charles M. (Emily Chickering)
ABBOT, Ezra Lincoln
ABBOT, George, Maiden
ABBOTT, George T.
ABBOTT, Mrs. James Alfred (Mary E. Jones)
ABBOTT, Mr. and Mrs. John B. (Dorcas C. Woodbridge)
ABBOT, John Lovejoy
ABBOTT, Mrs. J. Thompson (Betsey Kershaw)
ABBOTT, Mrs. Moses (Tryphenia Bowman)
ABBOTT, Mrs. Moses B. (Susan E. Dowding)
ABBOTT, Mrs. Nathan B. (Elizabeth L. Noyes)
ABBOTT, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan F. (Margaret Smith)
ABBOTT, Mrs. Sereno T. (Sarah French)
ABBOTT, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen E. (Elizabeth Riley)
ANDREWS, M. Christopher
BAILEY, Hollis R., Cambridge
BAILEY, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel H. (Elizabeth B. Abbott)
BAKER, Mr. and Mrs. George F. (Charlotte Blanchard)
25OTH ANNIVERSARY 163
BALLARD, Miss Mary A.
BALDWIN, Mrs. Curtis M. (Josephine Harding)
BANCROFT, Rev. C. F. P.
BARNARD, Mrs. Henry W. (Mabel Paradise)
BARNARD, Mr. and Mrs. J. Warren (Eliza Foster)
BARTLETT, Gen. William F. Post G. A. R.
BARTLETT, Mrs. Nathaniel J. (Ellen M. Higgins)
BEAN, John M.
BERRY, Mrs. J. Warren (Anna J. Clement)
BLUNT, Mrs. Charles C. (Lucy Josephine Holt)
BLUNT, Miss Lois M., North Andover.
BODWELL, Mrs. Henry A. (Emma A. Kimball)
BOUTWELL, Samuel H.
BROOKS, William Gray, Boston.
BROWN, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin (Susan Burr)
BROWN, Mr. and Mrs. George T. (Hannah M. Flint) Maiden.
BROWNELL, Mrs. Henry (Kate C. Meader)
BUCK, Miss Alice
BURRILL, Miss Lucy
BUTTERFIELD, Mrs. James P. (Elizabeth B. Jenkins)
BUTTERFIELD, Charles, North Andover.
BURTT, Miss Angelina
BYERS, Mrs. John (Esther H. Smith)
CALDWELL, Albert W.
CALDWELL, George R.
CALLAHAN, Mrs. Robert (Mary A. Loring)
CARPENTER, Rev. Charles C.
CARRUTH, Mrs. Isaac S. (Nellie Richardson)
CARRUTH, Miss Minnie S.
CARTER, Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. (Sarah N. McLawlin)
CARTER, Miss Emily
CHANDLER, Miss Ada B.
CHANDLER, Miss Frances E.
CHANDLER, Miss Laura M.
CHANDLER, Mr. and Mrs. George W. (Sarah Jane Faulkner)
CHEEVER, Miss Sarah S.*
CHICKERING, Family of Jacob
CLARKE, Mr. and Mrs. Amasa (Frances Sturtevant)
CLOUGH, Miss Elizabeth
COCHRANE, Mrs. James H. (Sarah Town)
COGSWELL, Thomas M., Lawrence.
CUMMINGS, Mrs. Brainerd (Sarah Holt)
CUMMINGS, Charles O.
164 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS
CUMMINGS, Mrs. Daniel (Hannah A. Holt)
DALE, William J., M. D.
DALE, Hon. William J., Jr.*
DAVIS, Mrs. William W. (Abby R. Worthley)
DAVIS, Mrs. Warren (Mary A. SpofEord)
DEAN Mrs. John H. (Caroline L. Clement)
DEMERIT, Miss Ellen, Lawrence.
DOWNS, Mrs. Samuel M. (Annie Sawyer)
DOVE, George W. W.
DRAPER, Warren F.
EAMES, Mr. and Mrs. Plato (Elizabeth M. Valpey)
EAMES, Mr. and Mrs. L. Holmes (Ellen Eames)
EATON, George T.
ELLIOT, Mrs. John P. (Anna Kittredge)
ELLIS, Miss Ellen G.
EMERSON, Mrs. Hovey (Ruth Hatch)
FIELD, Rev. Thomas A., O. S. A.
FINDLEY, Mrs. WiUiam F. (Laura Bean)
FLINT, Miss Emily E., Maiden
FLINT, Miss Gertrude L.
FLINT, George E.
FLINT, Mr. and Mrs. John H. (Frances A. Tyer)
FLINT, Miss NeUie F.
FLINT, Mrs. N. Farrington (Hannah A. Harding)
FOLANSBEE, Paul B.
FOSTER, Francis Homer
FOSTER, Frank M.
FOSTER, George W., Esq.
FOSTER, Mrs. Moses (CaroHne Hall)
FOSTER, Mrs. William H. (Rhoda J. Luscomb)
FRENCH, Miss Lucy A.
FRYE, Charles H.
GIDDINGS, Miss H. Elizabeth
GLEASON, Mrs. Frank E. (Mary E. Blood)
GOLDSMITH, Miss Bessie P.
GOLDSMITH, Mr. and Mrs. William G. (Joanna B. Holt)
GRAY, Miss Margaret E.
GRAY, Mrs. David (Sophronia Abbot)
GREEN, Edward, North Andover
GUNNISON, Miss Abiah
GUNNISON, Miss Jane
GUTTERSON, Mrs. Myron E. (Annie Elizabeth Tyler)
HAYWARD, Henry A.
2SOTH ANNIVERSARY ' 165
HIDDEN, David I. C*
HIGGINS, Frank P.
HIGGINS, Mrs. Henry C. (Eliza Abbott)
HINCKS, Miss Annie Perry
HOLT, Charles C*
HOLT, Mr. and Mrs. E. Francis (Parthenia P. Boutwell)
HOLT, George F.
HOLT, John M.
HOLT, Jonathan E.
HOWARD, Lewis T., Boston
HOWELL, Mrs. John (Mary Jane Allen)
HUNKINS, Mrs. Frank (Maria Wardwell), HaverhiU
HUNT, James W.
JACKSON, WiUiam T.
JAQUITH, Mrs. Newton (Laura A. Greene)
JENKINS, Mr. and Mrs. E. Kendall (Nancy Jenkins)
JENKINS, Mrs. Ebenezer (Sally Russell)*
JENKINS, John B.
JENKINS, Mr. and Mrs. William S. (Rebecca F. Farnum)
JOHNSON, James Edward
JOHNSON, Mrs. Samuel K. (Lucy A. Sargent)
JONES, Samuel M.
KIMBALL, Mrs. Walter H. (Mary E. Gage)
KITTREDGE, Miss Hannah
KITTREDGE, Miss Sarah
KNOWLES, Mrs. Winslow L. (Henrietta Cheever)
LADD, Mrs. John W. (Eliza D. Wardwell)
LEWIS, Mrs. H. Bradford (Laura M. Hewins)
LINCOLN, Miss Emma J.
LORING, Mrs. John R. (Sarah M. Barker)
LOWE, Mrs. Albert W. (Mabel F. Smith)
MANNING, Albert S.
MARLAND, Mr. and Mrs. Abraham (Elizabeth C. Lord)
MARLAND, Charles H.
MARLAND, George Abbott
MARLAND, Harold Webb
MARLAND, Miss Helen
MARLAND, Miss Lucretia D., Chicago, 111.
MARLAND, Mr. and Mrs. William (Salome Jane Abbott)
MARLAND, Mrs. William S. (Sarah Northey)
MCKEEN, Miss Philena
MERRILL, Mrs. James H. (Lucia Wadsworth Griswold)
MERRILL, Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Selah (Adelaide Brewster Taylor)
MERRIMACK MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY
MORRILL, Miss Mary E.
[56 ANTX)\'ER, MASSACHUSETTS
NEWMAN, Charles H.
NICHOLS, Mrs. John, Lawrence
NORCROSS, Mrs. O. N. ( Sibley) Worcester. Mass.
OSGOOD. Mrs. Isaac F. (Lora M. White) North Andover
PALMER, Rev. Frederic
PARK, Miss Agnes
PARK, Rev. Edwards A., D.D., LL.D.
PARKER, Miss Florence A.
PARKER, George A.
PASHO, Mrs. Henry F. (France? A. Richardson)*
POOR, P. Edward, Lawrence
POOR, Mr. and Mrs. George H. (Sarah Helen Mariand)
POOR, Mrs. Jonathan (Catherine Marston)
REA, Mrs. Jasper (Luc)- Woodcock)
REED. Mrs. Edwin (Emily P. Fellows)
RICHARDS, Mrs. Thomas (Mary Ann Stanley)
RICHARDSON, Miss Abbie A.
RICHARDSON, Mrs. Darius Qulia A. Famum)
RICHARDSON, Miss Hannah Maria
RICHARDSON, Mrs. Wesley (Lucy A. RusseU)
RIPLEY, Mr. and Mrs. George (M^- E. Aiken)
ROBERTS, Miss Mary Kate
ROBINSON, Mrs. Addison M. (Clara Chandler)
ROGERS, Miss Alice
ROPES, Rev. William L.
RUSSELL, Mr. and Mrs. Henry (Ida Gonld)
RUSSELL, Miss Martha A.
SANBORN, Miss C. H. Ada
SANBORN, Miss Emma M. E., M.D.
SEARS, Mrs. John C. (Susan M. Johnson)
SHATTL'CK, Joseph, Lawrence
SH.\W, Mrs. Da\-id (Lucy Hayward)
SHELDON, Mrs. Luther H. (Sarah H. Flagg)
SHIPMAN, Rev. Frank R.
SMITH HALL, Abbot Academy
SMITH, Mrs. B. Frank (Ella S. Jenkins)
SMITH, Mrs. J. H. D. (Anne Eliza Stevens)
SMITH, John L.
SMITH, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph W. (Fannie S. Donald)
SMITH, Mr. and Mrs. Peter D. (Abby J. Chandler)
SMITH, Mrs. Thomas (Laura F. Russell)
STEVENS, Mrs. Horace N. (Anna M. Phipps)
STEVENS, Miss Mary O.
STEVENS, Mr. and Mrs. Moses T. (Charlotte E. Osgood)
STEVENS, Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel (Elizabeth Priscilla White)
2SOTH ANNIVERSARY 167
STEVENS, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel D. (Lucy Amelia Abbot.)
SWIFT, Family of Nathaniel
TAYLOR, Prof. John Phelps
THOMSON, Mrs. T. Dennie (Abby C. Locke)
TILTON, Mrs. James S. (Rebecca A. Hobbs)
TOWLE, Dr. Nathaniel C.
TRUSTEES of Abbot Academy
TRUSTEES of J. P. Bradlee Estate
TRUSTEES of Phillips Academy
TRUSTEES of Punchard Free School.
TVER, Mr. and Mrs. Horace H. (Catherine S. Buss)
UPTON, Augustus A.
UPTON, Miss M. Lizzie
VALPEY, Mr. and Mrs. Ezra A. (May Adelaide Mayberry)
WARD, Mrs. Herbert D. (Elizabeth Stuart Phelps)
WARDWELL, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F. (Hannah E. Wells)
WARDWELL, Miss Octavia S.*
WARDWELL, WiUiam H.* Brooldine, Mass.
WHIPPLE, Mrs. Ashley C. (Frances A. Hoyt)
WHITE, Mrs. Burnham S. (Mary Sawyer)*
WHITE, Charles L.
WILSON, Rev. Frederic A.
WITHAM, John B.
WORTHLEY, Miss Phebe M.
LIST OF HOUSES AND SITES REPORTED TO THE SUB-
COMMITTEE ON LOAN COLLECTION AND
Homestead of ^George Abbot, the emigrant, occupied by eight lineal generations
of the family. The "old red house" demolished in 1862. The original garrison
house stood in the enclosure at the rear. (Central Street; owned by John H. Abbot)
Homestead of 'George Abbot, settled about 1678; residence of his descendants
to the seventh generation. Present house about one hundred and sixty years old.
(John Lovejoy Abbot's and N. J. Bartlett's, Central Street.)
The James Abbot house. ^Benjamin Abbot settled here in 1686 ; homestead in
possession of seven generations of the family. On this estate is the famous " Indian
Ridge," studied in the first half of this century by Sir Charles Lyell and President
Hitchcock; used in 1835 by the students for an abolition meeting when churches
and schools were closed to them ; and again the scene of geological researches by
Prof. George F. Wright, D. D., in 1875. (Timothy Abbot's, Mineral Street, near
1 68 ancover, Massachusetts
Garrison house and homestead of ^Timothy Abbot (the boy who was captured
by the Indians) and his descendants to the eighth generation, from 1690. (Samuel
H. Bailey's, off South Main Street.)
Homestead of 'Thomas Abbot, settled in 1697. Owned by Dr. Symonds Baker
and descendants from 1797. (George F. Baker's, off Mineral Street.)
One of the oldest houses in the village; the residence for many years, from 1796,
of Squire John Kneeland, a surviving patriot of the Revolution, who made the ad-
dress of welcome to Lafayette in 1825. (Mrs. Sarah N. Marland's, Chestnut Street,
An old Abbot house. Deeded to Capt. John Lee from Salem in 1779. Hon.
Hobart Clark, projector and first president of Boston & Maine Railroad, resided
here forty years. (Plato Eames's, Elm Street.)
Deacon *Isaac Abbot's tavern. Said to be over two hundred years old. Wash-
ington breakfasted here, Nov. 5, 1789; Miss Priscilla, nineteen years old, mended his
gloves and received her reward! First post-ofifice in Andover, 1795. Captain Edward
West from Salem resided here early in the century. (Samuel B. Locke's, Elm Street.)
Site of the "ministry house " of Old South Church, built 1710, demolished 1891.
Residence for sixty years of Rev. Samuel Phillips, first pastor, 1711-1771; for
thirty-six years of Rev. Jonathan French, second pastor, 1 772-1809. (Mrs. John
Byers's, School Street, corner Central.)
A very old house ; formerly stood on the opposite side of the street ; sold to
William Hawley in 1803. Rev. Dr. William Goodell, the famous missionary,
boarded here in 181 1. Said by Bellows, the artist, to be the most picturesque house
in Andover. (A. M. Davis's, Salem Street.)
Old Foster homestead. Oldest part of present house about one hundred and
fifty years old. " Master William Foster " kept a family school for boys here many
years. (Central Street; owned by Francis Homer Foster.)
Jacob Osgood house. Birthplace of Rev. David Osgood, D. D., born 1747,
died 1822, resident of Medford, Mass. At the south door of this house, James Otis,
the patriot, was killed by lightning, May 23, 1783. (Joseph Bourdelais's, Osgood
Old Chandler homestead, with well sweep. fMrs. Moses Abbott's, South Main
Residence of Deacon Daniel Poor, built about 1763. Afterwards residence of
Francis Cogswell, Esq., and Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry. (George H. Torr's, Central
Street, corner PhiUips.)
Site of Judge Phillips's first house in South Parish; his residence until 1778;
then that of Principals Pearson, Pemberton and Newman ; of Dr. Leonard Woods ;
part of Harvard College Library brought here in 1775 when this site belonged to the
estate of George Abbot, Esq. ; constitution of Phillips Academy written here, 1778 ;
first lectures of Theological Seminary delivered here, 1808. Used as " Commons "
for several years previous to 1886. (Phillips Street, between Latin dormitories and
250TH ANNIVERSARY ' 169
Site of Lieutenant-Governor Phillips's mansion house, 1 782-1802; the "Mansion
House " from 1812 to its destruction by fire, 1887. Washington, Lafayette, Jackson,
Webster and many other eminent guests were entertained here. (Main Street.)
The "Berry House"; the Blunt tavern in the time of the Revolution; after-
wards owned by Ezra Holt. Captain Isaac Blunt brought home the elm tree when
a sapling and set it out here about 1790. (Miss Dora S. Berry's, Salem Street.)
Old homestead of Nicholas Holt or his early descendants. In a record dated
"ye 8 off ist month 167I" the words are used "near a highway going up to his
house" — an unusual form of expression. Tradition says the house now in existence
was that of the first Holt. From Prospect Hill, near by, stood citizens of Andover,
June 17, 1775, watching the flames rising from the burning of Charlestown. (Miss
Sarah L. Sawyer's, Holt District.)
House used by Major Abbot Walker early in the century. Residence for many
years of Rev. Dr. Justin Edwards, third pastor of Old South Church, president of
Theological Seminary, temperance reformer and author. (M. Christopher Andrews',
The " Adams House ; " occupied by Dr. Eliphalet Pearson, 1806-1809, and by
Principal John Adams, 1810-1833. Built 1805. (Professor Graves's, Salem Street.)
Residence of Professors Murdock, Emerson, Shedd, Smyth; and in 1824-25 of
Oliver Wendell Holmes — "The school boy's chosen home." Built by Mark New-
man about 1809. (Professor Smyth's, Main Street.)
The " President's house ; " built by William Bartlet, 1809; residence, successive-
ly, of Rev. Dr. Griffin, Rev. Dr. Porter, Rev. Dr. Justin Edwards, Professor Austin
Phelps; the birthplace of missionary, education, temperance and tract societies.
Elizabetli Stuart Phelps used the small building to the south (formerly a summer
house in the garden) as a study. (Professor Moore's, Main Street.)
Residence of Samuel Farrar, treasurer of Phillips Academy for over fifty years;
removed here from Main Street. 1881 ; Madame Phoebe Foxcroft Phillips, wife of
Judge Phillips, earnest partner in all his philanthrophic work, and after his death one
of the founders of the Theological Seminary-, died here in 1812. Built 181 1.
" Where is the patriarch time could hardly tire,
The good old, wrinkled, immemorial Squire ?
An honest treasurer, like a black-plumed swan,
Not every day our eyes may look upon."
Holmes's PHiLure Academy Centennial Pokm.
(M. A. Roberts's, Phillips Street.)
Site of the Ser linary commons-house built by Madame Phoebe Phillips and Col.
John Phillips, 1809; Nehemiah Abbot and Joshua Emery were the early stewards.
Removed to corner of Main and Morton Streets about 1846. (Rear of Phillips Hall,
Residence of Prof. Moses Stuart, " the fatlier of Biblical Science in America,"
to 1852; afterwards of Professor J. Henry Thayer. Built 1810. (Professor Harris's,
170 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS
Residence of Samuel Abbot, Esq., liberal benefactor to the Old South Church
and the Theological Seminary, died 1812. Built in the latter part of last century
from design of manor house brought from England. Afterwards the residence of
Mark Newman, Samuel Lawrence and Hiram W. French. (Mrs. George W.
Cobum's, Central Street.)
Residence of Dr. Leonard Woods to 1854; afterwarks of Professors Barrows,
Mead, Gulliver; built 181 6. (Mrs. Professor Pease's, Main Street)
The Locke tavern. Built by Major Daniel Cummings, 1818: kept by James
Locke about 1823-1840; St Matthews Lodge of Masons organized here 1823;
meeting of projectors of Abbot Academy, 1828; residence of N. W. Hazen, Esq.,
for many years. (Albert S. Manning's, Main Street)
Residence of Deacon Amos Blanchard, first cashier of Andover Bank; built
1819; after his death in 1847 owned by Deacon Edward Taylor until his death in
1893. (Dr. Selah Merrill's, Main Street.)
The "Samaritan House," built by the "Samaritan Society" in 1824; residence
of Rev. Dr. Elias Cornelius, 1826-1829; of Principal Osgood Johnson, 1833-1837,
afterwards of his widow; of Professor Calvin E. Stowe, 1852-1853. Mrs. Stowe
wrote here the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. (Dr. Bancroft's, Chapel Avenue, corner
The "stone house," built 1828 as a carpenter's shop for use of theological stu-
dents; residence of Professor Stowe, 1 853-1 864; Mrs. Stowe wrote here several of
her later works; used for several years as a Seminary boarding-house ; the "Mansion
House" from 1887. (E. P. Hitchcock's, Chapel Avenue.)
"America house." In the northeast front room of this house in February, 1832,
Samuel F. Smith, a student in the Theological Seminary, wrote "America."
" My country ! 'tis ef thee,
Sweet land of liberty,
Of thee I sing I "
(Mrs. Samuel W. Blunt's, Main Street)
Double brick house built 1829; residence of Prof. Edward Robinson and of Dr.
Samuel H. Taylor, 1837-1871. (W. R. Newton and Mrs. C. W. Tarbox, Main Street)
Brick house, built 1833; residence of Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Skinner, and from
1836 of Prof. Edwards A. Park. (Main Street)
Residence of Prof. Bela B. Edwards, 1840-1852; Mrs. Edwards' young ladies'
school (the "Nunnery,") 1852-1864. (Prof. Ryder's, Main Street.)
Joseph Richardson house. In the front of this house, then occupied by Stephen
Dinsmore, the Free Church was organized. May 7, 1846, as a protest against American
slaverj'. (Main Street corner East Chestnut)
Site of the first manufactory of Andover, Judge Phillips's powder mill, built in
1776, which furnished the first powder to the American army. After the Revolution
it was turned into a paper mill. (Near the old woolen mill, Stevens's Mill, Marland
250TH ANNIVERSARY I'JI
Site of Judge Phillips's store; carried on 1 791-1797 by Hon. Jacob Abbot,
great grandfather of Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbot ; afterwards for many years the "com-
mons" for Academy students ; removed to upper Morton street, 1880. Present house
occupied by President Tucker 1880-1893. (Main Street, corner Phillips.)
Site of brick store, occupied for many years by Henry Abbot and his son Henry
W. Abbot. In the hall over this store the "Peace Supper" was held in 1815.
(Carter's Block, Main Street.)
First train of cars on the Andover & Wilmington Railroad, now the Boston &
Maine, arrived at this depot August 6, 1836. Location removed 1847. (Walsh's
plumbing shop, Essex Street)
The old "hill store," built about 1810 by Mark Newman; kept by D. and J.
Shipman, and for nearly fifty years by Deacon Albert Abbott. Printing office of
Flagg & Gould, 1813-1832; first tracts of the Tract Society and the first temperance
paper, the "Journal of Humanity," printed here.
Printing house of Flagg, Gould & Newman, of Allen, Morrill & Wardwell, and
of W. F. Draper. They published in all nearly four hundred text books, commen-
taries and many other valuable works. Built 1832. (Seminary boarding-house.
First car shop of the Boston & Maine Railroad. First cars made here in 1835
by Capt. Nathaniel Whittier and M. Christopher Andrews. ("Crystal Palace,"
Site of first Phillips Academy, 1 778-1 786, and of the residence of Squire Samuel
Farrar, 1811-1864, now on Phillips Street. (Professor Churchill's, Main Street,
Site of second Phillips Academy, built 1785, burned 1818. (Main Street, corner
Brick Academy, Salem Street; built i8i8, Bulfinch, architect. "The classic
hall" in which Oliver Wendell Holmes spoke his Exhibition Ode, 1825. Academy
Gymnasium, 1 867-1 896. Burned June 23, 1896. Restored after original design,
Site of Stone Academy, 1 830-1 864. (Main Street, corner Chapel Avenue.)
Site of the Universalist Church, 1 839-1 865, used afterwards for a few years as a
town grammar school. (Dr. J. F. Richards's, Main Street, corner Punchard Avenue,
formerly " Universalist Court")
Original site of Abbot Academy building. Built 1829. Removed to present
location, 1888. (School Street.)
Smith Hall, built 1854. Original location near the center of the front of Draper
Hall. (School Street)
Site of the "Town School." Removed to Main Street, remodeled, and now
used as a store by Ovid Chapman. "Chap's." (Corner of School and Central
Streets, south of Christ Church.)
172 AKDOrER UASSACHITSETTS
A few pre-Ustoric ates are added bj authority of Professor G. Frederick
Wright, LI- D., a former Andorer pasbv.
" Indian Ridge is a kame or esker, and was made famous in 1841 by Preadent
Hitchcock's paper before the Association of Amoican Geologists and Natora^sts.
The most accessIUe kame and kettle-b<de in the village of Aiido\-er is between the
Cadmlic Cemetoy and the Oki Sooth Chnrch. Pmnp's Pond is the most famous
ketde-bde in the town, and perhaps in die world, by reason of what has been written
about it. Fine facial scratches may be found on tibe Xortii Andovo- road neariy
(^iposite to the entrance ol Mr. Johnson's residence ; also on the rocks back of Pun-
chard schooUioase, and in the vicinity of the schoolbouse in Scotland District, while
some very delicate ones of great interest appear upon the exposed quartz crystals of
Sonset Rock. Prospect Hill is <me of the best ^)ecimens of dramlins to be found
anywhere in the world. Many boolders containing large crystals of light colored
fdd^ar which have come from Lake Winnepesaukee are found within the \dllage
limits, being often laid in die stone walls.'"
LIST OF HISTORIC SITES IN THE NORTH PARISH
MARKED BY NORTH ANDOVER CITIZENS.
Site of Franklin Academy.
Henry Osgood House: birthplace of Hon. Samuel O^ood, first postmaster
general of the United States.
House of CapL John Peabody who commanded a company in die Revolution-
Site of the first Meeting House buOt in 164S.
Home of Maj. John Adams who took an active part against Shay''s RebeQion.
The site of the second Woolen Mill in the County and die diird in the Country.
Phiffips Mansion, bmh in 1752 by Hon. Samuel Phillips. Once owned by
Bishop Phillips Brooks.
Home of CoL James Frye, who was at the taking of Loaisborg and at the fight
at Bnnker Hill, also occupied by Chaplain Jonathan Frye.
Home of CoL Samod Johnson, Rev(dati<Miary o&cer, of die Rev. Samuel John-
son, Author. Pendope J<riinson was killed by die Inffians near diis house in Feb-
*» Manaon House " of CoL Moody Bridges, officer in the Old French War and
representative to die first Provincial Congress. Birthfdace of Gen. Isaac I. Stevens.
The Bradstreet House. Home of Mr. Simon and &Irs. .\nne Bradstreet, Rev.
Thomas and Rev. John Barnard and Rev. William Symmes, D. D.
Klttredge Manson, Pro^iect Street, baik in 1784. Home of Dr. Thomas
Rittredge, Surgeon of ist Mass. Regiment in the Revolutionary War.
2SOTH ANNIVERSARY 1 73
MANUFACTURES AND TRADES EXHIBIT
While the hall at the Punchard School building was occu-
pied in telling of Andover's past, the lower part of the Town
House was given up to the display of the industrial Andover
of the present.
But a short time had been devoted to the development of
this part of the celebration, yet the committee were able to
make one of the most interesting features of the celebration.
The following Andover firms and manufacturers were repre-
sented in the display.
Smith & Dove Manufacturing Co. — Exhibit of Shoe Thread, Twines and
Carpet Yarns of many grades of fineness and finish. Also an interest-
ing display of the Flax in its different processes of manufacture.
M. T. Stevens & Sons, the Marland Mills. — Exhibit of Woolen Dress
Goods including several hundred designs of soft wool Flannels and
Tver Rubber Co. — Exhibit of Rubber Goods, including Druggist Sundries,
Atomizers, SjTinges, Hard Rubber Goods, Tubing, and many attrac-
tive Rubber specialties.
Ballardvale Mills. — Ejchibit of White Flannels of very fine quality and
textiu-e, including a part of the Mills' World's Fair prize exhibit.
Ballardvale Manufacturing Co. — Exhibit of Bronze Goods, Lamps and
Ornamental Mantel Goods.
Andover Press. — Exhibit of Book, Pamphlet and Artistic Job Printing.
Ballardvale Lithia Co. — Exhibit of Lithia Water from the Ballardvale
McDonald & Hannaford. — Exhibit of Harness and Horse Trappings.
2^ (5«6ober gpreas
j*^ is*li^ ■